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Spacing was 0. Rows were spaced 4 meters Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. This trial was planted on certified organic land and managed with organic practices following the National Organic Program standards. Weed control was achieved by mechanical cultivation and hand weeding. Plants were irrigated Amateur girls jerking for cash with t-tape laid in the rows.

Primocane fruit production began in the second week of August for both selections. In previous years, both selections had similar fruit sizes and yields. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds observation is needed to determine overall trends.

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Anthropology and Sociology - Poster Presentations. My ethnographic project explores work life, expressions of hegemonic masculinity, identity, and the role of homosocial intimacy in the context of Ohio River barge deckhands.

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The barge work environment is defined by isolation and day work periods where crewmen live in tight proximity. Deckhands frequently express a binary mindset toward their identity in which they maintain both an on-shore identity and a river persona.

On a local scale, this work seeks to shed light on river labor and the men who perform it. Barge crews have a unique, yet little studied culture in which hegemonic masculinity is a central component. In a larger context, this research aims to provide insight into the effects participation in hegemonic gender expression can have on work life.

I report on this excavation which revealed rich archaeological potential for understanding the lives Premature oral creampie in0 seconds prehistoric peoples of this area. Artifacts found at the Glacken site during the field school include lithic tools, animal bones, and freshwater shell. The Parker Academy had a longstanding history of being a home for the Premature oral creampie in0 seconds movement.

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Founded inthe Parker check this out of New Richmond, Ohio created the first all-inclusive academy that provided education to students regardless of race, gender, political identity, or religious affiliation. Students from across the country attended the Academy.

The multidisciplinary approach the Parkers used to facilitate inclusion aimed to establish an all-encompassing educational environment, which was not only fascinating, but uniquely ahead of its time. By closely networking with educators, artists, students, religious leaders, politicians, lobbyists and freedom Premature oral creampie in0 seconds, the Parkers established a school of inclusiveness far exceeding the standard of the mid to late 's.

Spanning the ranges of scientific study from anthropology, archaeology, history and public history, to local historians and educators; researchers have been able to piece together groundbreaking discoveries of the underground abolitionist movement throughout the Ohio River Valley.

Investigating the Parker Academy Premature oral creampie in0 seconds and networks through anthropological methods has allowed for new depths in the study of the abolitionist network to be reached. Through researchers' efforts in applying the same multidisciplinary approach facilitated by the Parkers, it has taught us to utilize resources previously untapped by the constraints of our individual subjective disciplines.

While opening our realms Premature oral creampie in0 seconds research to new ideas and methods, a more holistic approach allows for a wider breadth of knowledge. For example, an accompanying art installation was composed using the Abby Warburg's read article concepts of memory to show and to emphasize the multiple aspects of research used.

The school also served as an open home to many children who were given opportunities Premature oral creampie in0 seconds they would not have had otherwise. The Parker Academy was an educational institution that taught many children who came from different backgrounds, Premature oral creampie in0 seconds of race or gender.

Students at the Academy were all taught in the same rooms and all had the same opportunities. With the murmurings of women's rights, the girls educated at the Academy found a voice. The Academy's instructors taught them that they too have rights to be educated, to educate and to create a difference in society.

With the fact that the Academy itself has almost been forgotten, so have the young women who attended the Academy, who so wanted to express themselves in broader American culture. Through the written records of the Parker family's archives their voices and ideas have been revitalized. Historical analysis of the Parker family archive and the students detailed in it show that even before the confirmed start date of women's suffrage that women were already beginning to realize that they too mattered.

When young women graduated from The Parker Academy, they realized important position in society, and they went on to be influential parts of the abolitionist and the suffrage movements.

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Resveratrol 3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene is a polyphenol found naturally in plants which is linked to biochemical properties that may Premature oral creampie in0 seconds risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions when consumed. Peanut sprouts Arachis hypogaea are one of many plants that naturally contain resveratrol, and this work studied the effects of fermented oak tree saw dust on germination of peanuts in order to increase germination and consequently increase resveratrol.

Germination of peanut sprouts was quantified in two initial trials under optimal growth conditions. For germination, the most important conditions are temperature and moisture.

The varying factor in the sprout germination was the fermentation time of the saw dust prior to planting the peanut seeds. Saw dust fermented Premature oral creampie in0 seconds 0 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days were used in this study. In these initial trials, the results indicate that oak tree saw dust fermented for 45 days was most efficient in increased germination. In the future, more trials will be conducted, and resveratrol content will be analyzed as well as the microbiome content.

The next phase of this study is to utilize chitinase water for reduced fungal growth interference to further increase germination of peanut sprouts for increased resveratrol. Cellular and Molecular Biology - Poster Presentations. Fruit flies D. The invasion of the Air Sac Primordia ASPan more info analogous to the human lung, into the Wing Imaginal Disc WID of larval fruit flies is closely related to tumor metastasis in humans, as both processes use similar mechanisms to break down the basement membrane.

By studying genes responsible for ASP invasion, researchers may be able to identify analogous genes in humans responsible for tumor metastasis. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds genetic screen, using 65 protein trap lines, was conducted to find genes expressed in ASP and potentially involved in ASP invasion. The protein trap lines tagged endogenous proteins with a Green Fluorescent Protein GFP to indicate tissue localization of selected proteins under a fluorescent microscope.

WID were isolated from 10 third instar larvae of each line and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. The gene responsible was Apontic apt. The screen is ongoing and we hope to be able to identify more genes expressed in the ASP. To better understand the role of Calcineurin-binding protein 1 Cabin1 in the developing nervous system, the zebrafish cerebellum was used as a model system during the different stages of maturity to asses cabin1 cell type-specific Premature oral creampie in0 seconds expression.

Cabin1 is a gene that acts as a negative regulator to proteins that are known to control cerebellar granule cell production and survival. Therefore, cabin1 is expected to be expressed in granule see more precursors and mature granule cells.

The cell types being tested for cabin1 expression were granule cells, Premature oral creampie in0 seconds cells, eurydendroid cells, and their precursors. Single and double in situ hybridization were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression.

Basement Membranes BM are important for normal development and tumor progression. In order to get a better understanding of BM dynamics we identified genes that encoded BM interacting proteins.

One such gene is predicted to be involved in vesicle-mediated transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterize this gene by utilizing molecular biology techniques like immunohistochemistry, RNA in Premature oral creampie in0 seconds hybridization, and Western blot analysis utilizing Premature oral creampie in0 seconds generated in the laboratory. Anti-body staining indicates tissue and cell specific localization pattern for this protein.

This pattern is similar to RNA in situ hybridization pattern observed in various tissues. Data related to this proteins' involvement in vesicle-mediated transport will be presented. Nonstructural protein 1 NS1 functions in the replication of positive-sense RNA genomes of flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, and is highly homologous among flaviviruses.

Glycosylated NS1 can be found in the blood of infected individuals up to nearly two weeks after infection, therefore having the potential to be targeted for flavivirus diagnosis. One option read more detection of NS1 in the bloodstream could entail taking advantage of the carbohydrate-binding properties of continue reading. These proteins have been isolated from a variety of eukaryotes and prokaryotes and often bind to carbohydrate chains with high specificity.

The objective of this project is to determine the binding of several recombinantly-produced lectins to various NS1 proteins and subsequently design biosensors for each NS1 using the optimal lectin as Premature oral creampie in0 seconds recognition element and a fluorophore as the reporter element. The expression of these lectins will be tested and purified prior to determining the binding affinity and selectivity of each lectin and the specific carbohydrate moiety of NS1.

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If an optimal lectin-NS1 pair is found, a biosensor will designed as a rapid screening tool for flaviviruses. Many communities could benefit from the introduction of a more rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool with high specificity. The chemical tagging of a protein at or near its N- or C- terminus has remained a challenge when multiple reactive cysteines Premature oral creampie in0 seconds present.

The development of such a technique would be widely useful in a variety of applications. We added a cysteine residue within the N-terminal hexa-Histidine tag thereby providing a thiol -SH reactive site. However, the problem arises when the protein has other cysteine residues with similar affinity towards thiol-reactive reagents. The goal of this project then, is to explore potential ways to specifically modify a Cys-SH group located at the protein N-terminus without modifying other reactive Premature oral creampie in0 seconds link. Interestingly, comparing the data from both assays with that of a wild-type variant reveals an unreactive native cysteine.

Unfortunately, the cysteine embedded in the His-tag remained reactive, even when Premature oral creampie in0 seconds to the Ni-NTA. The results from this study leaves much to ponder about the reactive properties of cysteine residues. The neuromuscular junctions of most vertebrates perform synaptic transmission with acetylcholine as the primary neurotransmitter which binds with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, resulting in muscular depolarization.

21st ESICM Annual Congress

Studies involving frog and rat neuromuscular junction preparations have shown that disruption Premature oral creampie in0 seconds the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as the post-synaptic cell results in expanded plasticity of the neuromuscular junction, leading to the appearance of functional non-cholinergic receptors.

The present study hypothesizes the same receptor plasticity is seen in the developing neuromuscular junction of Danio rerio zebrafish. Embryos are allowed to develop to ages between 12 hours post fertilization hpfbefore neurons have first made contact with the muscle and 6 or 7 days post fertilization dpfwhen larva are free-swimming, and harvested at several time points in-between.

When the embryo reaches the desired age, they are fixed and stained with receptor labeling antibodies or fluorescently labeled toxins to identify the different classes of receptors present at the neuromuscular junction. Despite the prevalence of isolated Mycobacteriophages, surprisingly Premature oral creampie in0 seconds have had their structure characterized.

MooMoo is a singleton cluster siphovirus with a prolate capsid that has an approximately 4: Prediction of the major capsid protein structure revealed possible similarities to the icosahedral capsid of HK Based on these findings, although MooMoo has a vastly different morphology, it may be similar to presently characterized phages.

Further EM research is required in order to verify these predictions. Specific DNA recognition is of great importance for clinical and biomedical applications as well as public health. Emerging applications include detecting cancer biomarkers, pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes ARGs.

In this study, a sandwich assay for detecting specific ARGs has been demonstrated by employing a pair of ZFPs which consists of capture and detection probes. The Mature suck a bbc on parking place probe ZFP was conjugated on the silane polymer-coated surface through APDMES 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane cross-linking, creating an Premature oral creampie in0 seconds self-assembled monolayer with the capture probes conjugated homogeneously.

Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. NUPL2 protein is a part of the nuclear pore complex that serves to selectively export substances from the nucleus to the Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. Interestingly, there was no discernible expression differences in NUPL2 protein between HER2-expressing cells and non-expressing cells confirmed via immunofluorescence imaging and Western blot analysis. Importantly, we did find significant instances where the localization of NUPL2 was affected by the expression of HER2, which we quantified in a large sampling of cells.

Washington, D.

This is significant because it suggests a mechanism as to how HER2 promotes excessive cancer growth Premature oral creampie in0 seconds thus NUPL2 may warrant consideration as a possible target of gene therapy, especially for patients with recurring and poor prognosis cervical cancer.

The process of individualization in spermatogenesis occurs after both meiosis and mitosis have occurred to produce a bundle of 64 spermatid cells surrounded by two somatic cyst cells. During individualization, acrosomes form, axonemes elongate, nuclear chromatin compacts, histones are replaced with protamine, and investment cones travel along Premature oral creampie in0 seconds spermatids, removing cytoplasm, organelles, and the bridges connecting them. However, the signal Signal X from the somatic cyst to the spermatids to produce the Upd ligand is unknown.

Sorana Fucks Watch Mature georgina smith Video Hot pornn. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the changes of SOM, soil pH, and soil compaction under different cropping systems like corn-soybean-tobacco rotation Field 1 , continuous corn field Field 2 , hemp field Field 3 , wheat field Field 4 , pasture with animal grazing Field 5 , and canola field Field 6. The prominent soil textures in all fields are silt loam and silt clay loam. Disturbed soil samples were taken at the depth of cm and cm to measure SOM and soil pH. There were three replications from each field. The results indicated that the canola field which has been under no till for over fifteen years had the highest SOM at an average of 4. At similar depth, continuous cornfield had the second lowest amounts of SOM which was 2. The canola field and the continuous cornfield had soil pH of 6. The averages of soil compaction from all fields were psi in cm, and psi in cm. The highest compaction was found in the field under animal grazing at psi the lowest was under tobacco at The findings from this study revealed that SOM, soil pH, and soil compaction changed as affected by cropping practices. Pawpaw Asimina triloba is a tree fruit native to the eastern United States and is a niche crop for local markets. Fruit drop is a natural mechanism by which the tree reduces crop load in fruit crops. Fruit drop right after flowering is known as 'First drop' whereas fruit drop during June is called 'June drop'. Although adequate fruit thinning is necessary to produce large quality fruits, excess thinning reduces the yield. Fungicides are used to control fruit diseases, but their effects on fruit drop has not been examined in pawpaw. This study aimed to determine whether the application of sulfur and copper fungicides affected June drop of 'Sunflower' and 'Susquehanna' varieties of pawpaw. Eight trees per variety and ten random fruit clusters per tree were selected for treatment. The fruit clusters were treated with two levels of each fungicide sulfur: Treatments were applied at day intervals until harvest. Fruit numbers in each treatment cluster were recorded the first week of June and at the time of harvesting in late August. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and mean treatment differences using Costat statistical software. Final results will be discussed. Variation in annonaceous acetogenins activity in twig tissues of pawpaw varieties and new advanced selections using the brine shrimp test assay. Pawpaw [Asimina triloba L. Dunal], a tree fruit native to eastern North America, contains annonaceous acetogenins in the fruit and vegetative tissues that display pesticidal and anti-tumor activities. Previous studies have identified asimicin, bullatacin, bullatalicin, and 40 other bioactive acetogenins in the crude extracts of twigs, unripe fruit, seeds, root, bark, and ripe fruit of pawpaw. The brine shrimp test BST is a useful tool in observing the biological activities of bioactive chemicals in plant extracts. In this study, we aimed to determine the variation in annonaceous acetogenin activity in twig tissues of different pawpaw varieties and new advanced selections Hi , Hi , Sunflower, and Susquehanna. Pawpaw twigs were collected from trees of pawpaw varieties and advanced selections at KSU Research and Demonstration Farm. Dried twig tissues 2. Concentrated extract from twigs was transferred to vials to create concentrations of 0, 1. BST was used to determine the mortality rate for twig tissues and used to calculate an LC50 for each pawpaw genotype. Study results will be discussed. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are of interest to Kentucky growers because they can be grown organically and are able to produce a locally produced, niche-market crop from July until October. This provides an extended season for fruit sales at farmers' markets, community supported agriculture programs, and organic markets. Plants were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 3 blocks, including 5 plants of each cultivar per block for a total of 15 plants of each cultivar in a 3 meter plot. Spacing was 0. Rows were spaced 4 meters apart. This trial was planted on certified organic land and managed with organic practices following the National Organic Program standards. Weed control was achieved by mechanical cultivation and hand weeding. Plants were irrigated weekly with t-tape laid in the rows. Primocane fruit production began in the second week of August for both selections. In previous years, both selections had similar fruit sizes and yields. Continued observation is needed to determine overall trends. Anthropology and Sociology - Poster Presentations. My ethnographic project explores work life, expressions of hegemonic masculinity, identity, and the role of homosocial intimacy in the context of Ohio River barge deckhands. The barge work environment is defined by isolation and day work periods where crewmen live in tight proximity. Deckhands frequently express a binary mindset toward their identity in which they maintain both an on-shore identity and a river persona. On a local scale, this work seeks to shed light on river labor and the men who perform it. Barge crews have a unique, yet little studied culture in which hegemonic masculinity is a central component. In a larger context, this research aims to provide insight into the effects participation in hegemonic gender expression can have on work life. I report on this excavation which revealed rich archaeological potential for understanding the lives of prehistoric peoples of this area. Artifacts found at the Glacken site during the field school include lithic tools, animal bones, and freshwater shell. The Parker Academy had a longstanding history of being a home for the abolitionist movement. Founded in , the Parker family of New Richmond, Ohio created the first all-inclusive academy that provided education to students regardless of race, gender, political identity, or religious affiliation. Students from across the country attended the Academy. The multidisciplinary approach the Parkers used to facilitate inclusion aimed to establish an all-encompassing educational environment, which was not only fascinating, but uniquely ahead of its time. By closely networking with educators, artists, students, religious leaders, politicians, lobbyists and freedom fighters, the Parkers established a school of inclusiveness far exceeding the standard of the mid to late 's. Spanning the ranges of scientific study from anthropology, archaeology, history and public history, to local historians and educators; researchers have been able to piece together groundbreaking discoveries of the underground abolitionist movement throughout the Ohio River Valley. Investigating the Parker Academy connections and networks through anthropological methods has allowed for new depths in the study of the abolitionist network to be reached. Through researchers' efforts in applying the same multidisciplinary approach facilitated by the Parkers, it has taught us to utilize resources previously untapped by the constraints of our individual subjective disciplines. While opening our realms of research to new ideas and methods, a more holistic approach allows for a wider breadth of knowledge. For example, an accompanying art installation was composed using the Abby Warburg's mnemosyne concepts of memory to show and to emphasize the multiple aspects of research used. The school also served as an open home to many children who were given opportunities that they would not have had otherwise. The Parker Academy was an educational institution that taught many children who came from different backgrounds, regardless of race or gender. Students at the Academy were all taught in the same rooms and all had the same opportunities. With the murmurings of women's rights, the girls educated at the Academy found a voice. The Academy's instructors taught them that they too have rights to be educated, to educate and to create a difference in society. With the fact that the Academy itself has almost been forgotten, so have the young women who attended the Academy, who so wanted to express themselves in broader American culture. Through the written records of the Parker family's archives their voices and ideas have been revitalized. Historical analysis of the Parker family archive and the students detailed in it show that even before the confirmed start date of women's suffrage that women were already beginning to realize that they too mattered. When young women graduated from The Parker Academy, they realized important position in society, and they went on to be influential parts of the abolitionist and the suffrage movements. Resveratrol 3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene is a polyphenol found naturally in plants which is linked to biochemical properties that may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions when consumed. Peanut sprouts Arachis hypogaea are one of many plants that naturally contain resveratrol, and this work studied the effects of fermented oak tree saw dust on germination of peanuts in order to increase germination and consequently increase resveratrol. Germination of peanut sprouts was quantified in two initial trials under optimal growth conditions. For germination, the most important conditions are temperature and moisture. The varying factor in the sprout germination was the fermentation time of the saw dust prior to planting the peanut seeds. Saw dust fermented for 0 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days were used in this study. In these initial trials, the results indicate that oak tree saw dust fermented for 45 days was most efficient in increased germination. In the future, more trials will be conducted, and resveratrol content will be analyzed as well as the microbiome content. The next phase of this study is to utilize chitinase water for reduced fungal growth interference to further increase germination of peanut sprouts for increased resveratrol. Cellular and Molecular Biology - Poster Presentations. Fruit flies D. The invasion of the Air Sac Primordia ASP , an organ analogous to the human lung, into the Wing Imaginal Disc WID of larval fruit flies is closely related to tumor metastasis in humans, as both processes use similar mechanisms to break down the basement membrane. By studying genes responsible for ASP invasion, researchers may be able to identify analogous genes in humans responsible for tumor metastasis. A genetic screen, using 65 protein trap lines, was conducted to find genes expressed in ASP and potentially involved in ASP invasion. The protein trap lines tagged endogenous proteins with a Green Fluorescent Protein GFP to indicate tissue localization of selected proteins under a fluorescent microscope. WID were isolated from 10 third instar larvae of each line and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. The gene responsible was Apontic apt. The screen is ongoing and we hope to be able to identify more genes expressed in the ASP. To better understand the role of Calcineurin-binding protein 1 Cabin1 in the developing nervous system, the zebrafish cerebellum was used as a model system during the different stages of maturity to asses cabin1 cell type-specific gene expression. Cabin1 is a gene that acts as a negative regulator to proteins that are known to control cerebellar granule cell production and survival. Therefore, cabin1 is expected to be expressed in granule cell precursors and mature granule cells. The cell types being tested for cabin1 expression were granule cells, Purkinje cells, eurydendroid cells, and their precursors. Single and double in situ hybridization were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression. Basement Membranes BM are important for normal development and tumor progression. In order to get a better understanding of BM dynamics we identified genes that encoded BM interacting proteins. One such gene is predicted to be involved in vesicle-mediated transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterize this gene by utilizing molecular biology techniques like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis utilizing antibodies generated in the laboratory. Anti-body staining indicates tissue and cell specific localization pattern for this protein. This pattern is similar to RNA in situ hybridization pattern observed in various tissues. Data related to this proteins' involvement in vesicle-mediated transport will be presented. Nonstructural protein 1 NS1 functions in the replication of positive-sense RNA genomes of flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, and is highly homologous among flaviviruses. Glycosylated NS1 can be found in the blood of infected individuals up to nearly two weeks after infection, therefore having the potential to be targeted for flavivirus diagnosis. One option for detection of NS1 in the bloodstream could entail taking advantage of the carbohydrate-binding properties of lectins. These proteins have been isolated from a variety of eukaryotes and prokaryotes and often bind to carbohydrate chains with high specificity. The objective of this project is to determine the binding of several recombinantly-produced lectins to various NS1 proteins and subsequently design biosensors for each NS1 using the optimal lectin as the recognition element and a fluorophore as the reporter element. The expression of these lectins will be tested and purified prior to determining the binding affinity and selectivity of each lectin and the specific carbohydrate moiety of NS1. If an optimal lectin-NS1 pair is found, a biosensor will designed as a rapid screening tool for flaviviruses. Many communities could benefit from the introduction of a more rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool with high specificity. The chemical tagging of a protein at or near its N- or C- terminus has remained a challenge when multiple reactive cysteines are present. The development of such a technique would be widely useful in a variety of applications. We added a cysteine residue within the N-terminal hexa-Histidine tag thereby providing a thiol -SH reactive site. However, the problem arises when the protein has other cysteine residues with similar affinity towards thiol-reactive reagents. The goal of this project then, is to explore potential ways to specifically modify a Cys-SH group located at the protein N-terminus without modifying other reactive Cys-SH groups. Interestingly, comparing the data from both assays with that of a wild-type variant reveals an unreactive native cysteine. Unfortunately, the cysteine embedded in the His-tag remained reactive, even when bounded to the Ni-NTA. The results from this study leaves much to ponder about the reactive properties of cysteine residues. The neuromuscular junctions of most vertebrates perform synaptic transmission with acetylcholine as the primary neurotransmitter which binds with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, resulting in muscular depolarization. Studies involving frog and rat neuromuscular junction preparations have shown that disruption of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as the post-synaptic cell results in expanded plasticity of the neuromuscular junction, leading to the appearance of functional non-cholinergic receptors. The present study hypothesizes the same receptor plasticity is seen in the developing neuromuscular junction of Danio rerio zebrafish. Embryos are allowed to develop to ages between 12 hours post fertilization hpf , before neurons have first made contact with the muscle and 6 or 7 days post fertilization dpf , when larva are free-swimming, and harvested at several time points in-between. When the embryo reaches the desired age, they are fixed and stained with receptor labeling antibodies or fluorescently labeled toxins to identify the different classes of receptors present at the neuromuscular junction. Despite the prevalence of isolated Mycobacteriophages, surprisingly few have had their structure characterized. MooMoo is a singleton cluster siphovirus with a prolate capsid that has an approximately 4: Prediction of the major capsid protein structure revealed possible similarities to the icosahedral capsid of HK Based on these findings, although MooMoo has a vastly different morphology, it may be similar to presently characterized phages. Further EM research is required in order to verify these predictions. Specific DNA recognition is of great importance for clinical and biomedical applications as well as public health. Emerging applications include detecting cancer biomarkers, pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes ARGs. In this study, a sandwich assay for detecting specific ARGs has been demonstrated by employing a pair of ZFPs which consists of capture and detection probes. The capture probe ZFP was conjugated on the silane polymer-coated surface through APDMES 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane cross-linking, creating an anticipated self-assembled monolayer with the capture probes conjugated homogeneously. Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. NUPL2 protein is a part of the nuclear pore complex that serves to selectively export substances from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, there was no discernible expression differences in NUPL2 protein between HER2-expressing cells and non-expressing cells confirmed via immunofluorescence imaging and Western blot analysis. Importantly, we did find significant instances where the localization of NUPL2 was affected by the expression of HER2, which we quantified in a large sampling of cells. This is significant because it suggests a mechanism as to how HER2 promotes excessive cancer growth and thus NUPL2 may warrant consideration as a possible target of gene therapy, especially for patients with recurring and poor prognosis cervical cancer. The process of individualization in spermatogenesis occurs after both meiosis and mitosis have occurred to produce a bundle of 64 spermatid cells surrounded by two somatic cyst cells. During individualization, acrosomes form, axonemes elongate, nuclear chromatin compacts, histones are replaced with protamine, and investment cones travel along the spermatids, removing cytoplasm, organelles, and the bridges connecting them. However, the signal Signal X from the somatic cyst to the spermatids to produce the Upd ligand is unknown. To determine how signal X is regulated, 12 genes that showed reduced expression from STAT knockdown were selected. Examining how the FGF signaling pathway effects gene and protein expression within the pharynx during embryonic development The pharynx is a region of the vertebrate embryo that gives rise to many important structures in the head and neck. Embryonic cells in the pharynx use proteins as signaling molecules for cell to cell communication. The absence or mutations of these signaling proteins can cause birth defects. I analyzed the role of the Fibroblast Growth Factor FGF genetic signaling pathway during the development of the pharynx. I inhibited the FGF pathway in developing Xenopus laevis embryos and used in-situ hybridization to detect changes in gene expression. To verify that FGF signaling pathway was inhibited, embryonic proteins were analyzed with western blotting where I found reduced levels of di-phosphorylated ERK proteins. When the FGF pathway was inhibited, I also found that Iroquois gene expression in the pharynx was reduced compared to control embryos. In the future, this research may help us understand why certain birth defects occur in the pharynx. Embryonic cells use genetic signals to guide their development and differentiation. My study focused on the FGF signaling pathway which is known to be important for the development of the pharynx, an embryonic structure that gives rise to craniofacial features. Serving on the boards of several large public companies and as a member of the West Audit Committee Chair Networks, Mr. Lavigne also brings to our Board substantial public company corporate governance experience. Ray was Founder, Managing Director and President of Chesapeake Strategic Advisors, a firm specializing in providing advisory services to health care and life sciences companies, from April to August From June to March , Mr. Brown and Alex. During Mr. Ray is also a director of the Midwest Peregrine Society. Ray is a former director of Socios Mayores en Salud. Ray is a leading expert with extensive knowledge and experience in the banking and health care industries. He contributes to our Board over 30 years of business strategy, finance and investment banking experience for life sciences, health care services and medical device companies. For these reasons, our Board has concluded that Mr. Ray should continue to serve as one of our directors. Termeer serves on the supervisory board of ProQR Therapeutics, a Netherlands-based, publicly traded biopharmaceutical company. He is Chairman Emeritus of the New England Healthcare Institute, a nonprofit, applied research health policy organization he was instrumental in founding. Termeer was a former member of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston from to and its chairman from to , and a former member of the board of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. In , Mr. Termeer was inducted into. Table of Contents the Academy of Distinguished Entrepreneurs, which was established by Babson College to recognize the economic and social contributions of business pioneers. Termeer brings to our Board over 30 years of experience in key leadership roles at Genzyme, a global biotechnology company dedicated to making a major impact on the lives of people with serious diseases. Termeer provides our Board with a wealth of expertise in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, having served as a director of several public and private healthcare companies and organizations. Termeer should continue to serve as one of our directors. Pershing Square and Valeant have asked our stockholders to approve a proposal to request that our Board elect or appoint six nominees selected by Pershing Square and Valeant. Betsy S. Atkins, Cathleen P. Black, Fredric N. Eshelman, Ph. Shulman, David A. Wilson and John J. While this proposal is non-binding, if the proposal is approved, consistent with its fiduciary duties, our Board will give consideration to that result and any additional stockholder feedback it receives. Our Board will consider all factors it deems relevant at such time, including the selection criteria and guidelines that have been established by our Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee to evaluate the qualifications of director nominees. However, for the reasons outlined below, our Board unanimously recommends voting against this proposal. Allergan has a remarkable record of success in terms of historic financial performance and stock price including its performance in recent quarters. As noted above, since , Allergan has routinely delivered compelling results, achieving compound annual increases in revenue and Adjusted EPS of approximately Our current Board members also have broad knowledge of Allergan and the pharmaceutical industry gained from their years of service on our Board and in our industry. As business strategies and transactions are evaluated in the future, we believe it would be in the best interests of our stockholders for directors not associated in any way with Valeant to be entrusted with the task of comparing the conditional Exchange Offer with other options. Pursuant to our Bylaws, to the extent our directors are removed from our Board, vacancies can be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of our remaining directors then in office, even if less than a quorum. In contrast, the members of the Allergan Board have substantial investments in Allergan. While approximately 2,, of these shares are beneficially owned by David Pyott, who would not be removed from the Allergan Board if Proposal No. For the language of the proposed amendment to our Bylaws, please see Annex D attached hereto. Allergan has consistently demonstrated its commitment to allowing stockholders to be part of the corporate governance process, as evidenced by its responsiveness to stockholder proposals in recent years, even with proposals that are not approved by a requisite number of shares of Common Stock, and remains committed to this effort. Through our Charter and Bylaws and under Delaware law, stockholders can participate in a variety of ways. Accepting Proposal No. Our Board has not made any determination with respect to any responsive amendments, but we will continue to engage with our stockholders in order to collect feedback and consider potential responsive amendments and will promptly disclose any determinations made by the Board with respect to our Bylaws. Directors Is in Office. Given this possible protection our stockholders have under Delaware law, we believe that Proposal No. Certain protections have been developed in our Bylaws in order to prevent wasting Company time and money on immaterial, incomplete or subversive proposals or nominations. Currently, Allergan has a Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee that oversees the evaluation process to identify and evaluate potential new directors. Amendment to our Bylaws to fix the Authorized Number of Directors. Pershing Square and Valeant have asked our stockholders to approve a proposal that the authorized number of directors of our Board be fixed at nine directors. Our Board believes the only rationale behind Proposal No. Our Board is charged with the responsibility of managing the Company. Our Board and its committees should continue to have flexibility in the size of our Board in order to assist our Board to determine what is in the best interests of Allergan and its stockholders. Amending our Bylaws pursuant to Proposal No. Under our Charter and Bylaws and Delaware law, our Board is charged with the responsibility of managing the Company. In order to permit our Board to carry out its responsibilities and correspondingly fulfill its fiduciary duties to Allergan and its stockholders, both our Charter and Bylaws provide that our Board has the power to make, alter, amend or repeal the Bylaws. We believe that such an automatic, blanket repeal of any Bylaw amendment adopted by our Board without stockholder approval could have the effect of repealing one or more properly adopted Bylaw amendments that our Board determined to be in the best interests of Allergan and its stockholders and adopted in furtherance of its fiduciary duties to all Allergan stockholders. Pershing Square and Valeant have made the following proposal to be voted upon at the Special Meeting:. Our Board will consider all factors it deems necessary, before taking any action. As previously discussed, our Board has received several unsolicited offers from Valeant relating to a potential merger with Valeant. In order to permit our Board to carry out its responsibilities and correspondingly fulfill its fiduciary duties to Allergan and its stockholders, we believe our Board must be able to decide on the actions it takes and decisions it makes on behalf of the Company and its stockholders, including rejecting offers that it determines are not in the best interests of its stockholders. The SEC has adopted rules that permit companies and intermediaries e. A single Proxy Statement will be delivered to multiple stockholders sharing an address unless contrary instructions have been received from the affected stockholders. Stockholder Proposals for Inclusion in Proxy Statement. Stockholder Proposals for Annual Meeting. Our Charter contains an advance notice provision with respect to matters to be brought at an annual meeting of stockholders and not included in our Proxy Statement. Pursuant to our Charter and Bylaws, only such business shall be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders as is properly brought before the meeting. For business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, in addition to any other applicable requirements, timely notice of the matter must be first given to our Secretary. To be timely, written notice must be received by our Secretary not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days prior to the date of the scheduled meeting. While our Board will consider proper stockholder proposals that are properly brought before the annual meeting, we reserve the right to omit from our proxy statement stockholder proposals that we are not required to include under the Exchange Act, including Rule 14a-8 thereunder. Box , Irvine, CA Submissions satisfying the required qualifications will be forwarded to the chairperson of the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee or such other member of the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee delegated to review and consider candidates for director nominees. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date they were first issued and are based on current expectations as well as the beliefs and assumptions of management. Allergan expressly disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements except as required by law. You also may obtain free copies of the documents we file with the SEC by going to http: If you have any questions or need any assistance in revoking your proxy you may have given to Pershing Square, please contact our agent:. New York, NY Stockholders call toll-free: Banks and Brokers call collect: Board of Directors. Michael R. Deborah Dunsire, M. Trevor M. Louis J. Timothy D. Russell T. Henri A. Pyott also served as our President from January until February , and again from March until June Allergan is currently the fastest growing and second largest global ophthalmic pharmaceutical company and holds leadership positions in other specialty areas including neurosciences, medical aesthetics and medical dermatology. In addition to internally driven innovation, Allergan acquired Inamed Corp. Before joining Allergan, Mr. Pyott served as the Head of the Novartis Nutrition Division and as a member of the Executive Committee of the Switzerland-based Novartis AG, working over 17 years in several positions in strategic planning, marketing and general management in five countries around the world. Pyott is also the lead independent director of the board of Avery Dennison Corporation, a publicly traded company focused on pressure-sensitive technology and self-adhesive solutions, where he serves as Chairman of its Compensation and Executive Personnel Committee and as a member of its Governance and Social Responsibility Committee, and a member of the board of directors of Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, a publicly traded company focused on products and technologies to treat advanced cardiovascular diseases, where he serves on its Audit and Public Policy Committee. Table of Contents Mr. For these reasons, and given Mr. Pyott should serve as one of our directors. McDonnell has also served as the Chief Medical Editor of Ophthalmology Times since , and has served on the editorial boards of numerous ophthalmology journals. In , Dr. McDonnell was named the Irving H. McDonnell is the recipient of research grants from the National Eye Institute, Research to Prevent Blindness, and other funding agencies. The American Academy of Ophthalmology honored Dr. Our Board has concluded that Dr. McDonnell should serve as one of our directors because he provides our Board with wide-ranging expertise in ophthalmology and is widely recognized as an international leader in corneal transplantation, laser refractive surgery and the treatment of dry eye. Prior to joining Diageo, Mr. From to , Mr. Proctor is a member of the several notable legal associations, including the American Bar Association, Association of Corporate Counsel and the International Bar Association. Proctor was appointed to our Board in February and is a member of the Audit and Finance Committee and the Organization and Compensation Committee. Proctor brings to our Board a depth of international expertise and is a well-respected leader in the area of international law. Our Board has concluded that, with more than 35 years of domestic and international corporate legal experience, Mr. Proctor should serve as one of our directors. Executive Officers. Principal Positions with Allergan. Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer. Principal Executive Officer. Douglas S. James F. Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller. Principal Accounting Officer. Raymond H. Julian S. James M. Chief Financial Officer. Principal Financial Officer. Arnold A. Scott D. Scott M. Whitcup, M. Chief Scientific Officer. Officers are appointed by and hold office at the pleasure of our Board. Prior to assuming his current role, Mr. Prior to joining Allergan, Mr. Ingram received his Juris Doctorate from the University of Arizona in , graduating summa cum laude and Order of the Coif. Prior to Wynn Oil Company, Mr. From to Mr. Barlow worked for the accounting firm Deloitte Haskins and Sells. From April to February , Mr. Diradoorian served as Senior Vice President, Global. Table of Contents Technical Operations. From February to April , Mr. Diradoorian joined Allergan in July Gangolli served as Senior Vice President, U. Eye Care from July to January Gangolli began his career in pharmaceutical sales and marketing with Ortho-Cilag Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. Hindman also serves as President of The Allergan Foundation. Hindman worked at Deloitte, Haskins and Sells. While at Beckman Coulter, Mr. Prior to joining Beckman Coulter, Mr. Pinkston held various positions at Eli Lilly and Company from through , including serving as deputy general counsel responsible for the legal affairs of Lilly USA. Sherman joined Allergan as Executive Vice President, Human Resources in September with more than fifteen years of human resources leadership experience. Sherman worked at Medtronic, Inc. From April until September , Mr. Prior to these assignments, Mr. Prior to joining Medtronic, Mr. Sherman held various positions in the Human Resources and Sales organizations at Exxon Corporation from to Table of Contents Dr. Prior to that, Dr. In January , Dr. From until , Dr. As Clinical Director, Dr. Prior to its sale to Mallinckrodt plc in , Dr. Whitcup served on the board of directors of Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Whitcup also serves on the board of directors of Semnur Pharmaceuticals, a privately held company. He completed residency training in internal medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles and in ophthalmology at Harvard University, as well as fellowship training in uveitis and ocular immunology at the National Institutes of Health. Corporate Governance. Stockholder Responsiveness. At the Annual Meeting, a majority of stockholders representing a majority of shares present and entitled to vote approved a non-binding stockholder proposal requesting that our Board adopt a policy, and amend our governing documents, to require the Chairman of the Board to be an independent director. While this proposal was not approved by a majority of shares outstanding, in advance of the annual meeting of stockholders, our Board intends to engage with our significant stockholders to seek input regarding the potential adoption of appropriate responsive actions. In addition, our Board has received preliminary feedback from our stockholders regarding the adoption of amendments to our Charter and our Bylaws to permit stockholders to act by written consent, which was approved by our stockholders at the Annual meeting. Also in advance of the annual meeting of stockholders, our Board intends to engage with our significant stockholders to consider potential amendments to the stockholder right to act by written consent. Director Independence. The NYSE Listed Company Manual and corresponding listing standards provide that, in order to be considered independent, our Board must determine that a director has no material relationship with us other than as a director. Based on its review, our Board has affirmatively determined that none of Drs. Dunsire or McDonnell, Messrs. Pyott was determined to not be independent based on his service as our President and Chief Executive Officer. None of the members of these committees is an officer, employee or former employee of us or any of our subsidiaries. Board Meetings. Our business and affairs are managed under the direction of our Board. Executive Sessions. Our independent directors meet regularly in executive sessions without management. If not present, a different independent director is selected by the independent directors to chair the executive session. So, instead of bending down to pick something or someone up, bend your knees and squat down. Pick up the object or child and as you come up breathe out. Dr Etti Barsky, a sports Also avoid positions where physician and partner at you have to lie flat and those pregnancy exercise specialists that require long periods of Preggi Bellies South Africa standing still, she adds. Other www. The key is to is generally either limited or keep it relaxed and gentle. Power sports physician Dr Etti Preggi Bellies, can include walk if you can. Do this for 30 minutes or longer up to five Barsky. Rather play it safe professional screening before times a week. Aim to walk as many times as you did Exercise at altitude is also a during your second trimester, up to a maximum of five times no-no as is strenuous training. Whereas If you can afford to, training workouts for each trimester. These recommended. Anyone can do it, and bubbles could get stuck in budget is no excuse not to keep follow is suitably qualified. Silver weave clutch R Drop necklace R85 Topshop. White sneakers R Wood and bright thread bangles R Hexagon ring R Country Road. Coin statement necklace R Linen blazer R Yummy Mummy Maternity. Black maternity leggings R Striped top R Meamama Maternity. Country Road Meamama Ink blue twist dress R , www. Annabella Maternity. Mr Price Statement necklace R Top Shop Mr Price. Silver bracelet R Witchery Country Road. Double stone YDE D ri in vita atural fix? Fo Why sential for min C ods ric is not only es c it rus, br h baby, it also strawb occoli, your growing erries c a bl oo d flow to the preven n t saggin help to increases g of the g it look skin, makin skin. L ing eaving m on all nig akeup ht can cl the pores, og causing outbreak s. I used Bio-Oil throughout, morning, noon and night It should be applied twice daily from the start of the second trimester. Bio-Oil is available at pharmacies and selected retailers at the recommended selling price of R Individual results will vary. Email readers to ils and re o o f o u r preggie pic cent in tw yourpreg to letters We roped pregnancy looks nancy. Although she was a week away from the birth of her twins, nothing was going to stop this brave mommy-to-be from getting glammed up. Mmaseiso still manages to pull after off this very simple dress I chose to show off her beautiful bump and highlight her features as a woman. We added a touch of flair with a feather necklace, double stud earrings and a diamante ring. I felt necklace R The wrap dress is a sure winner when it comes to elegantly showing off the female form and a pregnant tummy a mother can be proud of. Cindy looks even more radiant in American Swiss cobalt blue. It is modern and fresh, www. The www. Meamama www. The Therapearl 3-in-1 Breast Therapy will help relieve any engorgement or pain. Available from baby stores, Dis-Chem, selected pharmacies and retail outlets. Visit www. Each makeover mom received a Pigeon and Lansinoh Hamper worth over R She united their whole family together I have two wonderful children from my previous marriage, my daughter Ruby and my son Yardan. Mark also has a daughter, Zoe. But our daughter, Lily, is his first biological child, and our first child together. However, it was not to be. I was diagnosed with placenta praevia where the placenta is lying very low, blocking the opening of the cervix and there was, unfortunately, very little chance of giving natural birth. I still prayed throughout the pregnancy that this might change. We waited until 40 weeks in the hopes that our little girl might still be able to push her way through, but no such luck for us. I started to extremely anxious and overly feel very nauseous and dizzy nervous. Although the doctor and I told the anaesthetist had explained everything to right away. But he had warned me step by step, I was still terrified. Having given birth me that this might happen and they added something to The Greatest Baby Expo to my daughter and my son the drip which made me feel is Coming to Town! The blue the hundreds of forms that screen went up and I started Complete your details below to needed to be filled out — my to feel a lot of tugging and redeem this voucher at the door husband was told to change pulling on my lower half. The Someone once described it as anaesthetist explained to me a feeling that my body was a Full Name: I was terrified of needles and I really struggled with that Pregnancy Due date: A nurse sensation. It to tell them to hurry up. After what felt like an Where do you live area? Almost immediately the eternity, at exactly 3. I was so was lifted out and she started grateful that this part was over. In fact mamamagic. It was such a relief. Normal ticket prices apply to visitors coming on Saturday and Sunday. The position of the much of the recovery room blue screen and the dizziness that they wheeled me into. I would feel better soon. She And it was so told me that my baby and overwhelming, beautiful and husband were waiting for me magical — and everything a in our room. They took her to the and the painkillers rocked. I was left alone while the It was nothing like the scary doctors put me back together. And All I could think of was even though it was not what getting through this to be with I had planned on, or what happy memories. Thanks to though, I was not in the room my baby. Even held her close. During this week blessing. Shortly after that I phoned my husband. We going to face the second time around in Groote Schuur Hospital, were both devastated, but my M the professors did their husband also had unwavering y son Jalon medication. This caused me to rounds twice a week. On one faith that everything would was born lose around 30kg. His when I found out that I was 12 birth defects, abnormalities and adjusting to the work birth weight was 3. In November , after a My body took a while moms have difficulties in Taking insulin four times a few months of having severe to adjust to the diabetic surviving. How, statistically, day at work was so difficult. There were times which was actually me contraceptive that I was are prevalent. I was given when I did not pack enough slipping into and out of a taking. I thought that the the option to abort, but had food for the day, then there diabetic coma , I was rushed irregular periods were due to to decide straight away. I was diagnosed the diabetes. There were also I burst into tears. I had mixed me tired and dizzy. I had with type one diabetes. The See table for the difference my first pregnancy , which is and sadness because I was nausea made everything more between type one and two. I could barely get an My dad passed away at the realise that I was expecting. I was shocked about apple in. I also struggled to young age of 42 after a long the extreme risks involved, concentrate. I had to go to the hospital I was shocked and in denial. My to sleep. I would sleep almost tummy was becoming more sitting up because I struggled uncomfortable. Eventually to breathe. My back gave me my boss and I reached an problems. By 32 weeks Chloe agreement that I would weighed 2. So not only was I the pregnancy I was told carrying big, but I had too that I would have to have a much amniotic fluid. I began caesarean section. This really to dread the weekly visits scared me, but the doctors because any small thing like advised me that natural birth glucose in urine meant that I was too risky. The c-section would have to be admitted. A macrosomic baby went through to the theatre simply means a big baby and Chloe was born weighing with a birth weight of over five kilograms. The caesar 4. Because the baby grows was painless and without too large in utero, it can complications. After her birth lead to birth complications Chloe was sent straight to the for the mother and health neonatal ICU and I was sent complications for baby. I was I felt like I could give devastated to be separated birth there and then. I was from my baby early on but she extremely tired, but battled needed medical attention. Not associated with being Associated with being overweight. No production of insulin. Have too little insulin or cannot use effectively, worsens with time. Patient eventually has no insulin production. Common occurrence of Fewer episodes of episodes of low blood sugar hypoglycaemia, depending level hypoglycaemia. Not preventable. Mostly preventable with a healthy lifestyle. On day three I was I eventually made it to the allowed to breastfeed and a nursery and was shocked to week after giving birth we see her in the NICU with so were finally sent home. After many wires attached to her. The doctors told me that However today we are both she had a dangerous blood doing really well and have sugar reading of 1. I cherish KNOW? High blood sugar trimester and your blood sugar should be pregnancy levels, so managing your levels before 13 weeks of pregnancy monitored regularly. You have to maintain ideal blood glucose get enough kilojoules and to avoid sugar Controlling your blood sugar becomes levels as explained by your doctor , eat highs and lows. A suitable, safe form of harder during pregnancy normally the correct balanced diet, exercise and exercise should also be discussed with during the second and third trimester take the correct medication. If at all possible, women with pre-existing is well controlled. Your doctor will advise Meeting with your doctor or nurse diabetes should self-monitor their blood if an early delivery is necessary. If you before falling pregnant is crucial to ensure glucose levels. This will have to be took insulin during your pregnancy, then that you have a healthy pregnancy. It is discussed with a healthcare practitioner, insulin might be given via injection or vital to have controlled diabetes even but should be in line with the pattern intravenously when labour begins. Insulin before falling pregnant, because you of testing and type of insulin that was requirements often drop quickly right after might only find out you are pregnant by used prior to the pregnancy. Your eyes giving birth. Pregnant moms with diabetes often have babies with considerably larger bodies than other babies. The extra sugar is converted to sugar which makes the baby fat. If the baby is too large for a vaginal birth, a c-section might be necessary. ON YOUR High blood sugar levels during your pregnancy — and specifically the 24 hours before the delivery — may cause your baby to have dangerously low blood sugar right after the birth. If this is the case, then baby will be monitored closely and given glucose intravenously. Insufficient calcium and magnesium levels may also occur, but can also be rectified with medication. Ntsiki Molefe Osman, medical advisor at Novo Nordisk; webmd. Fontana 2 , N. Baur 2 , M. Ferretti 1 , H. Zimmermann 1 , A. Exadaktylos 1. IIST has not been performed in a prospective controlled setting with a standardized blood loss. Therefore to investigate if blood loss of ml is leading in healthy blood donors to detectable changes by NIRS. Prospective evaluation of 20 healthy female blood donors ml, ca. The ischemic stress test was performed by occluding the brachial artery by a sphygmomanometer cuff inflated 50mmHg over systolic blood pressure for 3 minutes. Pre- defined variables were calculated out of the recorded StO2 and HbO2 values. To detect a difference in variable before and after blood donation, the non-parametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used. Median age was There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure BP from However variables measured by NIRS did not change significantly: StO2 Variables measured after ISST did not change significantly, too: StO2 slope of recovery 3. There was a trend in delta HbO2 The study was underpowered to show a possible significant change. Although systolic blood pressure decreased significantly after blood donation of ml, StO2 did not show any significant change in baseline. Furthermore, there were no significant changes after ischemic stress tests. Only HbO2 increased nearly significantly after blood donation. In order to understand the physiological background of these findings, more systematic research is needed. Ribeiro 2 , A. Costa-Pereira 2 , T. Cardoso 1 , A. Carneiro 1. Only sparse data are available on the relationship between time of admission and mortality, with the few published reports yielding contraction results. We sought to determine whether ICU mortality rates differ according to the time of admission: Retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to our mixed ICU from December to November Patients were grouped according to their day and time of admission in weekday day shifts and off hours from 8: The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. The results of the few studies that examined the effect of the time of admission on outcome were contradictory probably reflecting the different organizations in the care of critical ill patients and type of ICU. As long as adequate staffing is maintained, and necessary diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are available, weekend and night admission should not be associated with differences in patients outcome. Rommes 3 , M. Bosman 2 , P. Spronk 3. Off hour admission to the ICU has been associated with increased as well as with decreased mortality. We evaluated whether ICU admission during off hours affects hospital mortality. During daytime the intensivist is available at the bedside in the ICU and rounds are made at least twice daily. A total of patients were admitted in the study period. Off hour admission to the ICU is associated with increased mortality. This is seems to be explained though by higher illness severity in patients who were admitted off hours. In the United Kingdom there is evidence of insufficient critical care facilities 1 which leads to delays in intensive care unit admission 2 and inter-hospital transfers. Critically ill patients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality during transport 3 and therefore, wherever possible, in our institution we use theatre recovery as a critical care overflow facility until an internal bed becomes available. An audit in our institution in showed an increased mortality for patients cared for in recovery compared with those admitted directly to critical care 4. However, this did not take into account illness severity. Patients admitted indirectly to critical care via theatre recovery over a two year period from April — March were identified. Patients admitted to critical care via the recovery overflow facility have a higher mortality than those admitted directly. This cannot be explained by illness severity. More ICU beds should be made available and care levels increased in recovery. Early patient transfers should be considered in the absence of an immediately available critical care bed. Van Leuvan 1 , B. Avard 1 , N. Slater 2 , R. Berry 3 , P. Lamberth 4 , H. McKay 3. Unplanned intensive care unit ICU admissions from the ward are often triggered by the failure to recognize and appropriately manage deteriorating patients. This is evidenced by delays in admission to the ICU 1 , unexpected referrals to intensive care and unexpected deaths often being preceded by significant physiological disturbances 2. The ability to detect early deterioration in patients allows early appropriate intervention. Early intervention can reduce unplanned admissions to the ICU and unexpected deaths 3. The aim of the project was to reduce the number of unplanned ICU admissions by introducing an intervention onto four wards which included: A four month prospective, controlled, before and after intervention trial in four wards at a district and tertiary hospital was undertaken. The ethics committee waived the need for consent. Demographic data collected on all admissions included: Outcome data included: There were a similar number of ward admissions for the two periods and respectively. The frequency of vital sign measurement increased for respiratory rate 2. A three pronged approach to the recognition of the deteriorating patient increases their detection and appears to reduce the number of unplanned admissions to ICU. This simple intervention has the potential to improve patient outcome. Clark 2 , P. Alexander 3. It is well recognised that ward based early warning score systems can be used to predict outcome 1. Up to 24 hours of physiological parameters prior to the event and the documented MEWS were taken from ward observation charts and collated on a database. Hospital discharge data were available on 86 patients overall mortality Receiver Operating Characteristic ROC curve areas were different among the scoring systems with the best prediction being those containing a SpO2 score. The addition of SpO2 to early warning score systems improve their ability to predict hospital discharge mortality following a cardiac arrest call or unplanned ICU admission. Further work is ongoing regarding defining appropriate weightings for each sub-group. Licari 2 , A. Bellomo 2. Several studies have evaluated epidemiological characteristics of patients receiving a Medical Emergency Team MET call. However, no published data is available on patients receiving more than one MET call 2nd MET call patients and how they differ from those with a single activation. This study aims to analyze the epidemiology of these 2nd MET call patients. A retrospective observational study carried out in a single tertiary care Australian teaching hospital. For statistical analysis we used SPSS version We analyzed MET calls activated in patients during the period 16 August — 15 August Three hundred eighty-two patients The mean age of the study group was Overall, in-hospital mortality was Second MET call patients were more likely to be surgical and dysrhythmias were a more common trigger. Patients requiring a 2nd MET call have a higher in-hospital mortality and longer LOS compared to those receiving only a single activation Delayed institution of NFR orders could be one of the possible reasons for this difference. Tornic 1 , L. Reyes 1 , C. Booy 1 , D. Spahn 2 , B. Beck-Schimmer 3. Therefore, apoptosis was determined in effector cells alveolar macrophages, AM and neutrophils and target cells tracheobronchial and alveolar epithelial cells of the respiratory compartment, measuring caspase-3 activity upon endotoxinand hypoxia-induced injury. Camptothecin was used as a positive control for induction of apoptosis. ANOVA was performed to assess the statistical significance of differences. However, LPS did not change caspase-3 activity. Our data demonstrate that the three cell types from the upper and lower respiratory compartment AEC and TBEC as well as AM show the same pattern of apoptosis upon exposure to hypoxia and endotoxin. The apoptotic answer of neutrophils, however, is different. Our results support findings with increased apoptosis rate in pulmonary cells 2. The functional implications of these inflammatory answers have further to be analyzed. Parra 1 , E. Astudillo 2 , A. Fueyo 3 , X. Puente 4 , F. Taboada 5 , C. Lopez-Otin 4. Matrix metalloproteinases MMP modulate extra cellular matrix turnover and cytokine processing after different injuries. MMP-8 is released by neutrophils at the sites of inflammation. Levels of MMP-2, -8 and -9 were measured by gelatin zymography and western blotting. There were no differences in lung collagen, MMP-2 or -9 between genotypes. After injurious ventilation, there was a dampened increase in MIP-2 with significant increases in IL-4 and IL in knockout mice, suggesting a shift to an anti-inflammatory response. MMP-8 promotes lung inflammation after high pressure ventilation. Absence of this enzyme results in an anti-inflammatory response that protects against VILI. Grant Acknowledgement. Saprito 2 , D. Ley 5. In acute lung injury ALI , excessive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMNs to the lung aggravates pulmonary inflammation and promotes organ failure. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma PI3K gamma is a critical mediator of directional cell movement and has been implicated as an attractive target in experimental ALI. Here, we sought to characterize the role of PI3K gamma in mediating the different steps of PMN trafficking in the lung. In addition, the contribution of endothelial and leukocytic PI3K gamma was studied in bone marrow chimeras. PMN accumulation in the different compartments of the lung intravascular space, interstitium, alveolar space was determined by flow cytometry. LPS-induced microvascular permeability was determined by the extravasation of Evans blue. However, transepithelial migration into the alveolar space was reduced in these mice significantly. We conclude that PI3K gamma is required for transepithelial but not for transendothelial migration in LPS-induced lung injury. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K gamma activity preferably on hematopoietic cells may be effective at curbing inflammatory lung tissue damage. Vonthein 2 , W. Brehm 3 , J. Riehtmueller 3. RhDNase is an established part in the treatment of children with cystic fibrosis [ 1 ] and in children following cardiac surgery rhDNAse reduced duration of ventilation [ 2 ]. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rhDNase is able to reduce the duration of ventilation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, multi-centre national trial was conducted after approval of local ethics committees. Patients were stratified in a surgical and a non-surgical group. The trial was started within 48h after start of mechanical ventilation and was terminated when weaning was successful or after 21 days. Patients in the treatment group received 2,5ml of rhDNase endotracheally twice a day. Patients in the placebo group received normal saline. In this study, surgical and non-surgical patients were included. Acute burn patients were randomized to the rhDNase group only. In the rhDNase group, 12 patients 2 surgical died versus 16 4 surgical in the placebo group. In surviving surgical patients median duration of ventilation was In surviving non-surgical patients median duration of ventilation was 7. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed, that 9 days of treatment with rhDNase migth save 2,9 days on the ventilator which might save EUR in the treatment of an average nonsurgical ICU patient. In adult non-surgical intensive care patients, rhDNase significantly shortens the duration of ventilation. This effect is not seen in surgical patients. Particulary patients with pneumonia respond favourably to the treatment with rhDNase. Pirc 1 , M. Castellon 2 , R. Minshall 2. Acute lung injury ALI and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS are life threatening conditions characterized by inflammation of lung parenchyma and vascular leakage leading to impaired gas exchange and hypoxemia. A recent study revealed a protective effect of dexmedetomidine in a rat model of sepsis, demonstrating a decrease in mortality and inflammatory response 1. With this in mind, we investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on lung edema formation and albumin permeability in an airway endotoxin model of ALI. Mice were divided into four groups: Under general anesthesia, the subclavian vein was cannulated after which the mouse was allowed to recover for approximately 60 minutes. The mice were subsequently placed in a closed chamber and exposed to nebulized normal saline no injury or 10 mg of LPS in saline solution for 60 minutes to induce an inflammatory response. Lastly, exposure of mice to nebulized LPS increased vascular albumin permeability from 5. In conclusion, treatment with dexmedetomidine after induction of lung injury by LPS significantly decreased extravascular water accumulation in the lung, thereby attenuating edema formation. These data suggest that dexmedetomidine can block LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice and thus may be the sedative of choice for patients with ALI or ARDS in the critical care setting. The chronic effects of ethanol abuse on the lung are not known. Recently chronic alcohol abuse was shown to increase the incidence and mortality from ALI in patients with sepsis. We postulated that ethanol ingestion via glutathion depletion and derangement of the interstitial matrix predisposes to ALI. Vascular and alveolar protein permeability in vivo: Alveolar type II cell barrier function in vitro: Apical sodium channel function in vitro: Ethanol ingestion increased acute edema formation in lungs isolated from endotoxemic rats. Matrix metalloproteinases MMP activity was increased due to activation of latent enzymes along with elevations in the 7-S fragment of type IV collagen in the lung lavage fluid. In addition there was increased bi-directional protein permeability across the alveolar epithelium in vivo. As a compensatory response there was increased alveolar epithelial transcellular sodium transport in vitro. Chronic alcohol abuse decreases tissue glutathione levels and predisposes to ALI. Kreymann 2 , A. Weimann 3 , H. Buchardi 4 , H. Herrmann 5 , H. Schneider 6. Georg, Leipzig,. Early vs. The level of energy supply on clinical outcome remains unclear. With the exception of a reduced occurrence of acute kidney failure, there was no positive effect of early energy supply during the first 3 days on ICU and hospital mortality and sepsis incidence. Early 3 first days energy supply, intravenous glucose not counted, is associated with lower mortality and morbidity in ICU patients. The level of early energy supply —kcal , apart from separate parenteral glucose, is linearly correlated with ICU mortality risk. Fernandez 1 , M. Schlossberg 1 , J. Schmidt 1 , J. Claassen 1 , K. Connelly 2 , S. Mayer1, M. Rosenbaum 3. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH patients are frequently hypermetabolic and at high risk for development of medical complications. This study examined the relationship between energy balance and complications following SAH. Prospective observational study conducted in fifty eight consecutive SAH patients aged 58 range: We recorded demographic data, time to initiation of EN, energy intake from EN, resting energy expenditure REE measured by indirect calorimetry and in — hospital complications over 14 days. Cumulative EB was compared to the frequency of infectious and non infectious complications with a Spearman's correlation coefficient. Linear regression was conducted to determine whether EB was correlated with the frequency of specific post-SAH complications. Median time to feeding was 1 day post bleed range: Daily target caloric intake was estimated at A greater negative energy balance is associated with an increased risk of infectious complications after SAH. Vlot 1 , H. Price that focuses on long-term, value investment opportunities. Alexander C..

To determine how signal X is regulated, 12 genes that showed reduced expression from STAT knockdown were selected. Examining how the FGF signaling pathway effects gene and protein expression within the pharynx during embryonic development The pharynx is a region of the vertebrate embryo that gives rise to many important structures in the head and neck.

Embryonic cells in the pharynx use proteins as signaling molecules for cell to cell communication. Click the following article absence or mutations of these signaling proteins can cause birth defects. I analyzed the role of the Fibroblast Growth Factor FGF genetic signaling pathway during the development of the pharynx. I inhibited the FGF pathway in read more Xenopus laevis embryos and used in-situ hybridization to detect changes in gene expression.

To verify that FGF signaling pathway was inhibited, embryonic proteins were analyzed with western blotting where I found reduced levels of di-phosphorylated ERK proteins.

When the FGF pathway was inhibited, I also found that Iroquois gene expression in the pharynx was reduced compared to control embryos. In the future, this research may help us understand why certain birth defects occur in the pharynx.

Embryonic cells use genetic signals to guide their development and differentiation. My study focused on the FGF signaling pathway which is known to be important for the development of the pharynx, an embryonic structure that gives rise to craniofacial features. We previously identified targets of the FGF pathway and hypothesized that they play important roles in development.

I analyzed the expression patterns of several of these FGF target genes and am working to use RT-PCR to verify during which stages these genes are expressed. One group of FGF targets, the Iroquois genes, are expressed in the developing pharynx. We inhibited Iroquois in developing embryos and analyzed these embryos with in situ hybridization to visualize any changes in gene expression during development and with skeletal preparations to identify defects in their craniofacial features.

Overall, we have identified and begun to characterize several FGF signaling pathway targets in developing Xenopus embryos. Creating a PAM-1 substrate trap to isolate novel fertility-governing proteins.

Mutations in the conserved C. However, the substrates of PAM-1 have yet to be determined. We propose to use a bacterially expressed and purified maltose binding protein MBP: The discovery of these substrate identities will help create a foundational map to define PAM-1 interactions, which in turn will provide further insight into the common mechanisms that govern fertility in C. Blood glucose levels are highly regulated Premature oral creampie in0 seconds maintain blood glucose homeostasis within an organism.

Expression of insulin is mediated by a number of transcription factors that Premature oral creampie in0 seconds with the proximal promoter of the insulin Premature oral creampie in0 seconds.

Glis3 has been found to associate with the primary cilia, tiny hair-like sensory organelles extending from the surface of most mammalian cells. There is currently no antibody against Glis3. Thus, most studies of Glis3 have been conducted under overexpression conditions that likely do not represent activity under normal physiological expression levels.

This novel cell line will subsequently be used to investigate Glis3 Premature oral creampie in0 seconds localization, posttranslational modifications, and protein-protein interactions under experimental conditions, including chronically elevated levels of glucose and conditions of oxidative stress. Morpholino MO knockdown of glis3 in early zebrafish development resulted in some fish that exhibited cyclopia, hydrocephalus, and ventrally curving spine that were not observed in control MO injected animals.

Insulin was detected in glis3 morphant fish, however, its expression encompassed Premature oral creampie in0 seconds smaller area. Moreover, immunohistochemistry indicated that glis3 MO disrupted the normal islet architecture of injected animals.

The cyclopia, hydrocephalus, ventrally curving spine, and disrupted islet architecture present in morphant fish is indicative of primary ciliary defects that have previously been associated with glis3.

The establishment of EGFP-glis3 fish line will allow for studies Premature oral creampie in0 seconds investigate the localization of glis3 protein in different tissues and examine glis3 localization to the primary cilia. The EGFP-glis3 line will also permit identification of glis3 Premature oral creampie in0 seconds genes and glis3 interacting partners and posttranslational modifications.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in lung cancer, and studies suggest that KRAS-mutated lung cancers require integrins to activate downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK signaling and form tumors.

PDF version being created.

We investigated Premature oral creampie in0 seconds new approach using a plant expression system to improve the production of TALEs that were previously expressed in Escherichia coli. Each TALE was subcloned into different pEAQ vectors and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which were agroinfiltrated into the plants to start expression.

Leaves were then harvested and the two proteins were isolated using Nickel columns. The purified TALE proteins were characterized. Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin are the three FDA approved platinum based chemotherapeutic agents. Each compound is defined by two ligands attached to a central platinum atom. Intracellularly, the nonleaving ligands remain attached to the central atom. However, the leaving ligands are released from the platinum and allow the platinum to bind to cellular components such as DNA.

It is the coordination of the platinum atom with the attached nonleaving ligand Premature oral creampie in0 seconds DNA that induces apoptosis, the primary mechanism of death for these compounds.

Compound structure correlates with compound efficacy as a cancer treatment. For example, Cisplatin and Carboplatin have similar non-leaving ligands and are approved by the FDA for treatment in many of the same cancer types.

As of the record date, there were , shares of our Common Stock exclusive of approximately check this out, shares of Common Stock held in treasury outstanding, each entitled to one vote.

The shares of Common Stock held in our treasury will not be voted at the Special Meeting. There were approximately 4, stockholders of record as of the record date. How You Can Vote.

You can vote by attending the Special Meeting and voting in person or you can vote by proxy. If you are the record holder of your stock, you can vote by proxy by submitting your proxy Premature oral creampie in0 seconds the internet, by telephone or through the mail. To vote by proxy via the internet, follow the instructions on the Notice or go to the internet address stated on your proxy card.

To vote by proxy by telephone, call the number on your proxy card. If you receive only the Notice, you may follow the procedures outlined in the Notice to vote by proxy via the internet or request a proxy card. As an alternative to voting by proxy by telephone or via the internet, you may vote by proxy by mail by simply marking your BLUE proxy card, signing and dating it and returning it in the postage-paid envelope provided.

If you hold your shares of Common Stock through a broker, bank or other nominee, then you will receive instructions from such institution or person on how to vote your shares. Your broker, bank or other nominee will allow you to deliver your voting instructions via the internet and may also permit you to submit your voting Premature oral creampie in0 seconds by telephone. If you properly give your Premature oral creampie in0 seconds and submit it to us in Premature oral creampie in0 seconds to vote, the individuals named as your proxy holders will vote your shares as you have directed.

All shares entitled to vote and represented by properly submitted proxies including those submitted via the internet, by telephone and by mail received before the polls are closed at the Special Meeting, and not revoked or superseded, will be voted at the Special Meeting in accordance with the instructions indicated on those proxies.

If no this web page is indicated on a BLUE proxy card, such shares will be voted by the proxy holders named on the enclosed BLUE proxy card according to the recommendation of source Board: In their discretion, the proxy holders named in the BLUE proxy card are authorized to vote on any other matters that may properly come before the Special Meeting and at any continuation, postponement or adjournment of the Special Meeting.

As of the date of this Proxy Statement, our Board is not aware of Premature oral creampie in0 seconds other items of business that will be presented Premature oral creampie in0 seconds consideration at the Special Meeting other than those described in this Proxy Statement.

Table of Contents Voting in Person.

Martin 1E. Stankevicius 2U.

If you plan to attend the Special Meeting and wish to vote in person, you will be given a ballot at the Special Meeting. Please note that if your shares of Common Stock are held of record by a broker, bank or other nominee, and you decide to attend and vote at the Special Meeting, Premature oral creampie in0 seconds vote in person at the Special Meeting will not be effective unless you present a legal proxy, issued in your name from your broker, bank or other nominee.

Even if you plan to attend the Special Meeting, we encourage you to submit your proxy to vote your shares in advance of the Special Meeting. There will be security present at the Special Meeting. As a stockholder of record, you have the power to revoke your proxy at any Premature oral creampie in0 seconds before it is voted.

A proxy may be revoked by a stockholder of record by:. Attendance at the Special Meeting will not, by itself, revoke a proxy.

Naked ebonys Watch Brunette shaved pussy mature Video Boobies Fuck. Therefore, you want to avoid high Vitamin A foods such as liver. Beta-carotene is the precursor to Vitamin A and is much safer during pregnancy. Some research has trail mixes. Fibre Many women find that their 25 — 35g Oat bran is an excellent source of 10 digestion becomes sluggish fibre. Specifically, oat bran is very during pregnancy and that they high in soluble fibre, which helps to are more prone to constipation make the stools easier to pass and OAT BRAN and haemorrhoids. As a result, also helps to control blood sugar and it is essential to have sufficient cholesterol levels. Oat bran can easily fibre to prevent constipation be added raw to yoghurt, soups and and to keep the digestive stews, but it works wonderfully cooked system functioning correctly. Add some fresh fruit for some extra fibre and a dash of cinnamon for some spice. Centre in Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal. Eating right is one of the keys to blood test is the only way to diagnose managing gestational diabetes. Eat low fat proteins, such interestingly, certain ethnic groups are Very rarely, the baby could die in the as skinless chicken, lean cuts of red meat, also more at risk, specifically Africans womb. Eat healthy and Asians. Your doctor will want to regularly glucose, corn sweetener. Your body turns the food you eat into a kind of sugar called glucose. Insulin therefore helps to keep your blood sugar level from getting too high hyperglycemia or too low hypoglycemia. The glucose your body makes also goes to your baby through the placenta, and the baby uses this energy to grow. During pregnancy, hormonal changes may cause the insulin in your body to not work effectively, and therefore not turn the glucose into energy. The safest exercises during pregnancy are brisk walking, swimming or water aerobics, and you should exercise every day. To do pain in your back or abdomen, or if your this, divide your weight in kg by your height in metres, then divide the answer by your height heartbeat feels irregular. These are estimates. Speak to your doctor or Keep your weight in the normal range by dietician about your specific needs and aims. YB Image: Jupiter Images. Health Society of South Africa www. But in the demanding toddler. They where she had to be rehydrated and kept may sense that Mommy is less available overnight for observation. Too much her mother, who lived nearby and was most children negotiate successfully. Explain that there is a baby in some ways negative feelings. For example: When he helps with the prepare them for the fun parts and assure of it after those sleepless nights , Julie baby say something like: This is based on their age, help him regulate his feelings. Some children exhibit difficulty sleeping with you in the nursery. Use this as an It is not harmful to baby your older child opportunity to talk about the impending after the birth of a sibling. Your child may a little bit while he is still adjusting to arrival of the baby. They may wish on things he has already mastered such How to deal with it: For for having another baby. Further, he will gain an increasing and let them know who will look after your older child. It may be useful to sense of himself as an independent them. This Waart. Gas, massage and or the neonatal ICU, then the heat treatments are usually on bill can be significantly higher hand in government hospital — as much as R16 per day, maternity wards. More complicated You have a choice: Discuss whom you to become specialists , while midwives and aim to offer you at home. Patients at a birth centre. A few medical as the policy of one birth hot water bottles, maternity place to birth your baby where aid plans will pay for some partner is strictly enforced at pads and linen savers. Pain relief is usually limited worth asking. This is in to be healthy, have a low risk and baths. The downside of choosing a caregiver; have the option of guaranteed Of course private care is going to cost government hospital, Heather notes, is pain relief medication and ultimately what more — a lot more. Private care is also the way to I would suggest a government hospital. You could go if you definitely want an epidural. Regular exercise during pregnancy is now highly recommended by medical experts worldwide to keep you and your baby healthy, and to keep those unwanted extra kilos at bay. Exercise is one of the best ways to control weight gain during pregnancy, confirms Fika Ntshaba, a biokineticist and pregnancy training specialist for Virgin Active in Gauteng. IT CAN better posture. As with any exercise, if you have a fever and any joint or muscle aches and pains, then you should not train. When you are pregnant it is crucial to listen to your body — even if your head would really like you to push a little harder. The rule of thumb is: I get abdominal cramps when exercising. Is this OK? It depends on what type of cramps they are. Can I carry on with all my day-to-day activities, like cleaning the house and lifting things? The important thing with lifting things — especially heavier objects — is to protect your back and not hold your breath. So, instead of bending down to pick something or someone up, bend your knees and squat down. Pick up the object or child and as you come up breathe out. Dr Etti Barsky, a sports Also avoid positions where physician and partner at you have to lie flat and those pregnancy exercise specialists that require long periods of Preggi Bellies South Africa standing still, she adds. Other www. The key is to is generally either limited or keep it relaxed and gentle. Power sports physician Dr Etti Preggi Bellies, can include walk if you can. 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Fo Why sential for min C ods ric is not only es c it rus, br h baby, it also strawb occoli, your growing erries c a bl oo d flow to the preven n t saggin help to increases g of the g it look skin, makin skin. L ing eaving m on all nig akeup ht can cl the pores, og causing outbreak s. I used Bio-Oil throughout, morning, noon and night It should be applied twice daily from the start of the second trimester. Bio-Oil is available at pharmacies and selected retailers at the recommended selling price of R Individual results will vary. Email readers to ils and re o o f o u r preggie pic cent in tw yourpreg to letters We roped pregnancy looks nancy. Although she was a week away from the birth of her twins, nothing was going to stop this brave mommy-to-be from getting glammed up. Mmaseiso still manages to pull after off this very simple dress I chose to show off her beautiful bump and highlight her features as a woman. We added a touch of flair with a feather necklace, double stud earrings and a diamante ring. I felt necklace R The wrap dress is a sure winner when it comes to elegantly showing off the female form and a pregnant tummy a mother can be proud of. Cindy looks even more radiant in American Swiss cobalt blue. It is modern and fresh, www. The www. Meamama www. The Therapearl 3-in-1 Breast Therapy will help relieve any engorgement or pain. Available from baby stores, Dis-Chem, selected pharmacies and retail outlets. Visit www. Each makeover mom received a Pigeon and Lansinoh Hamper worth over R She united their whole family together I have two wonderful children from my previous marriage, my daughter Ruby and my son Yardan. Mark also has a daughter, Zoe. But our daughter, Lily, is his first biological child, and our first child together. However, it was not to be. I was diagnosed with placenta praevia where the placenta is lying very low, blocking the opening of the cervix and there was, unfortunately, very little chance of giving natural birth. I still prayed throughout the pregnancy that this might change. We waited until 40 weeks in the hopes that our little girl might still be able to push her way through, but no such luck for us. I started to extremely anxious and overly feel very nauseous and dizzy nervous. Although the doctor and I told the anaesthetist had explained everything to right away. But he had warned me step by step, I was still terrified. Having given birth me that this might happen and they added something to The Greatest Baby Expo to my daughter and my son the drip which made me feel is Coming to Town! The blue the hundreds of forms that screen went up and I started Complete your details below to needed to be filled out — my to feel a lot of tugging and redeem this voucher at the door husband was told to change pulling on my lower half. The Someone once described it as anaesthetist explained to me a feeling that my body was a Full Name: I was terrified of needles and I really struggled with that Pregnancy Due date: A nurse sensation. It to tell them to hurry up. After what felt like an Where do you live area? Almost immediately the eternity, at exactly 3. I was so was lifted out and she started grateful that this part was over. In fact mamamagic. It was such a relief. Normal ticket prices apply to visitors coming on Saturday and Sunday. The position of the much of the recovery room blue screen and the dizziness that they wheeled me into. I would feel better soon. She And it was so told me that my baby and overwhelming, beautiful and husband were waiting for me magical — and everything a in our room. They took her to the and the painkillers rocked. I was left alone while the It was nothing like the scary doctors put me back together. And All I could think of was even though it was not what getting through this to be with I had planned on, or what happy memories. Thanks to though, I was not in the room my baby. Even held her close. During this week blessing. Shortly after that I phoned my husband. We going to face the second time around in Groote Schuur Hospital, were both devastated, but my M the professors did their husband also had unwavering y son Jalon medication. Ingram 1. As a result of our achievement of Pyott of approximately Also in accordance with the bonus structure approved at the beginning of , the Compensation Committee established the bonus pool for participants in our Management Bonus Plan at approximately For , our Chief Executive Officer recommended that the baseline bonus for employees be set at The bonus payouts for Messrs. Ingram, Edwards and Gangolli and Dr. Whitcup were approximately For , the Compensation Committee approved a similar bonus structure to the one used in Long-Term Equity Incentives. For , the Compensation Committee determined that our executive officers should receive long-term incentive awards in the form of non-qualified stock options, with a limited pool of restricted stock and restricted. Table of Contents stock unit awards used for retention purposes and being awarded for that portion of bonuses to be paid in shares of restricted stock and restricted stock units under our Executive Bonus Plan and Management Bonus Plan, as per the design of those plans, and in limited cases for high performers. The Committee believes that stock options best align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders because they:. Actual equity awards to the named executive officers are based on these guidelines as well as specific peer group company position data. The Compensation Committee continues to believe an emphasis on long-term incentive awards is appropriate for an innovative growth company in our industry and the purpose of this higher market positioning for equity-based compensation is to:. In February , the Compensation Committee reviewed its guidelines for long-term incentive awards for all eligible participants. The Compensation Committee considered the rate of share usage for proposed equity awards which represents shares granted divided by common shares outstanding. The rate of share usage for proposed equity awards for represented approximately 4. The Compensation Committee also considered our rate of share usage of 1. We believe that stockholder value transfer is a more relevant measure as it takes into account differences in cost between options and stock awards. In addition, Mr. Table of Contents four-year anniversary of the grant date; this stock option similarly was awarded in order to recognize performance and to encourage retention. With the exception of Mr. Pyott has served as our Chief Executive Officer since January and during those 16 years, he has delivered exceptional value to our stockholders. In , the Compensation Committee approved a special one-time performance-based recognition and retention award of , restricted stock units to Mr. This award was intended to recognize over a decade of outstanding performance by Mr. Pyott on behalf of the Company and its stockholders, to help ensure Mr. The award generally will vest, if at all, only if Mr. Pyott remains continuously employed with the Company throughout the five-year performance period. The Company achieved the highest performance threshold in April ; therefore, as of the date of this Proxy Statement, the full award has satisfied the performance requirements and will be eligible to vest subject to Mr. Pyott remains subject to the time-vesting element of the award before he is eligible to realize any value from the award. Table of Contents At the time of award design, the minimum performance threshold was realized by only half of our then-applicable peer group over each three-, four- and five-year period during the prior ten years. To help ensure that Mr. Thus, although the number of restricted stock units vesting pursuant to the award occurs in equal thirds, the minimum performance threshold for the first third of the award required sustained performance in the top half of the peer group at the time of award design, with incremental vesting of the remaining award for truly exceptional results. Separately, the award incentivizes Mr. Pyott to remain with Allergan and to drive sustained value creation over the entire five-year performance period ending February Pyott remains subject to the time vesting feature of the award. However, Mr. Pyott is not able to realize the value of the award in the same manner as Allergan stockholders because the value of Mr. The award was made to Mr. Pyott in light of his proven track record of creating exceptional stockholder value and the Compensation Committee believes that the award represents the optimum vehicle to incentivize sustained value creation and, importantly, to retain Mr. Therefore, Mr. Pyott must remain with us throughout the five-year performance period to receive any performance vested awards, with limited exceptions whereby the time-vesting portions of the award may be accelerated for termination of employment due to death or disability, or a qualifying termination of employment in connection with a change in control. The time vesting portion of the award will not be accelerated for any other reason, including termination of employment without cause or departure for good reason prior to the end of the five-year performance period. Performance-Based Awards. Equity Grant Policies. For the fiscal year, the grant date was 11 trading days after the earnings release for the prior fiscal year. Compensation Clawback Policy. In February , the Compensation Committee adopted an amended clawback policy. In this instance, the Company is required to use reasonable efforts to seek to recover any bonus awards or other incentive compensation paid to the applicable executive officer in excess of the amount that would have been paid had the fraud or intentional misconduct not occurred. The Compensation Committee also expanded the clawback policy to permit the Compensation Committee to cause the Company to recoup certain compensation paid to applicable executive officers in the event such executive engages in misconduct, or is negligent in exercising his or her responsibility to manage or monitor conduct or risks, that results in a material violation of law or Company policy that causes significant financial or reputational harm to the Company. The Compensation Committee approved this amended policy after consideration of market practices and to further align the interests of senior members of our management team with our stockholders. Stock Ownership Guidelines. Our Board has approved a stock ownership policy for our most senior executives. Under this policy, the stock ownership level for our Chief Executive Officer is six times base salary, President is four times base salary and for our executive vice-presidents and corporate vice presidents is three and two times base salary, respectively. Ownership is determined based on the combined value of the following executive holdings: Executives have five years from the time of appointment to satisfy his or her respective stock ownership level. We have also implemented a prohibition applicable to all of our directors and employees worldwide, including our executive officers, on the short selling or hedging of Company securities and the purchase or sale of derivative securities of the Company, as well as on pledging Company securities. Perquisites and Other Benefits. We provide tax and financial planning reimbursements in order to support effective use of our compensation programs and good financial management. In addition, we provide a flat annual perquisite allowance for each named executive officer. The flat perquisite allowance is taxable income to the executives, paid in equal bi-weekly installments during the course of the year and is not grossed-up. Reimbursements for tax and financial planning are also taxable income and are paid up to the maximum amounts described above, based on invoices submitted. As pursuant to our expatriate policy and in connection with Mr. Ingram with certain benefits related to his international relocation, including but not limited to relocation allowance, host country housing, payment of private education and related expenses for Mr. We also provide Mr. Ingram with tax equalization benefits and tax gross ups on his expatriate benefits in order to ensure no greater or lesser tax burden during his international assignment. A description of Mr. We offer medical plans, dental plans, vision plans and disability insurance plans for all eligible U. Executives are offered the same plans and charged the same rates as all other employees. The term life insurance coverage levels and the resulting costs are higher for our executives. Retirement Plans. We have two supplemental defined benefit retirement plans for certain employees, including the named executive officers. Under the Allergan, Inc. Eligible employees, including the named executive officers, also receive matching contributions from us for a given year under the Executive Deferred Compensation Plan if, during that year, they have contributed the maximum before-tax contributions under our Savings and Investment Plan and the amount of contributions made to the Savings and Investment Plan on behalf of the participant was limited by the Code. Severance and Change in Control Benefits. None of our U. Accordingly, the employment of any such employee may be terminated at any time. Severance Program non-change in control. We maintain the Executive Severance Pay Plan pursuant to which certain executive officers, including Messrs. Pyott, Ingram and Edwards prior to his resignation , and Dr. Whitcup, participate. Participants are also entitled to certain other benefits, including coverage under certain health care benefit plans and outplacement counseling services. Change in Control Benefits. The CIC Policy does not include provisions for an excise tax gross-up and calculates cash severance benefits differently than the individual change in control agreements, by basing the calculation on the target bonus amount for the year in which a qualifying termination occurs rather than the average of the two highest of the last five bonuses paid to participant. The CIC Policy also eliminates certain retirement benefits executives are eligible to receive upon a change of control with qualifying termination, including the elimination of a cash payment in lieu of service credit under our retirement plans. Our Change of Control Policy is designed to help attract key employees, preserve employee morale and productivity, and encourage retention in the face of the potentially disruptive impact of an actual or potential change in control. These benefits also allow executives to assess takeover bids objectively without regard to the. Table of Contents potential impact on their own job security. Resignation of Mr. Edwards did not receive any severance or other benefits in connection with his resignation and is no longer entitled to benefits under the CIC Policy or the Executive Severance Pay Plan. Equity Awards. Tax and Accounting Considerations. Additionally, stock options will qualify for the performance-based exception where, among other requirements, the exercise price of the option is not less than the fair market value of our Common Stock on the date of the grant, and the plan includes a per-executive limitation on the number of shares for which options may be granted during a specified period. The Compensation Committee considers the anticipated tax treatment to the Company and our executive officers when reviewing executive compensation and our executive compensation programs. The Compensation Committee will consider ways to attempt to maximize the deductibility of executive compensation, while retaining the discretion it deems necessary to compensate officers in a manner commensurate with performance. Table of Contents and the competitive environment for executive talent. Failure to satisfy these requirements can expose employees and other service providers to accelerated income tax liabilities, penalty taxes and interest on their vested compensation under such plans. Parachute payments are compensation linked to or triggered by a change in control and may include, but are not limited to, bonus payments, severance payments, certain fringe benefits, and payments and acceleration of vesting from long-term incentive plans including stock options and other equity-based compensation. Accounting Considerations. ASC Topic also requires companies to recognize the compensation cost of their stock-based awards in their income statements over the period that an employee is required to render service in exchange for the award. Grants of stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and other equity-based awards under our equity incentive award plans will be accounted for under ASC Topic Our Compensation Committee will regularly consider the accounting implications of significant compensation decisions, especially in connection with decisions that relate to our equity incentive award plans and programs. As accounting standards change, we may revise certain programs to appropriately align accounting expenses of our equity awards with our overall executive compensation philosophy and objectives. Tabular Compensation Disclosure. The following tables summarize our named executive officer compensation as follows:. Summary Compensation Table. The Summary Compensation Table summarizes the compensation earned by or paid to our named executive officers in , and , including salary earned, the. Table of Contents 1. Name and Principal Position. Chairman of the Board and. Chief Executive Officer. Former Executive Vice. President, Finance and. Business Development,. Executive Vice President,. Research and Development,. Corporate Vice President,. President, North America,. Table of Contents The table below shows our incremental cost for the provision of certain perquisites and tax payments to our named executive officers. The table below shows our contributions to the Savings and Investment Plan and the cost of term life insurance and term executive post-retirement life insurance premiums, as follows:. Table of Contents 2. Table of Contents 3. Table of Contents 3 The , performance restricted stock units granted to Mr. Pyott in January vest, subject to Mr. Edwards and Dr. Whitcup, respectively, as well as restricted stock units granted to Mr. Vesting, however, is accelerated on such date as the participant is eligible for normal retirement having reached the age of 55 and five years of service or in the event of termination due to death or permanent disability. Pyott did not exercise any options or vest in any stock awards in Table of Contents 5. Plan Name. The normal retirement age is 65, however unreduced benefits are payable at age Early retirement benefits are available at age 55 with five years of service. A participant is fully vested in his or her pension benefit after five years of service. Pyott and Mr. Gangolli are currently eligible for early retirement because they are over age 55 and have more than five years of service. Eligible earnings include amounts paid to an employee by Allergan for services rendered, including base earnings, commissions and similar incentive compensation, cost of living allowances earned within the US, holiday pay, overtime earnings and other bonus amounts paid under certain programs. The present value of accumulated benefits is based on a 5. No preretirement mortality, retirement or termination has been assumed for the valuation. None of our named executive officers have accrued benefits under the Supplemental Retirement Income Plan. Other than the named executive officers listed below, none of the other named executive officers participated in our Executive Deferred Compensation Plan during Executive Deferred Compensation Plan. Eligible employees, including our named executive officers, receive contributions from us, or Employer Match Restoration Credits, for a given year under the Executive Deferred Compensation Plan if, during that year, they have contributed the maximum before-tax contributions to our Savings and Investment Plan and if the amount of contributions made to the Executed Deferred Compensation Plan resulted in fewer matching contributions made to the Savings and Investment Plan. Similarly, eligible employees receive Company contributions, or Retirement Contribution Restoration Credits, for a given year under the Executive Deferred Compensation Plan if, during that year, the amount of contributions made pursuant to the retirement plan contribution feature of the Savings and Investment Plan was limited by the Code. None of our named executive officers are eligible to receive Retirement Contribution Restoration Credits. Table of Contents that provide the basis on which gains and losses are attributed to account balances under the Executive Deferred Compensation Plan. In , the plan permitted participants to choose from among thirteen investment funds. The rates of return of the funds for ranged from Name of Investment Option. Vanguard Prime Money Market. American Funds New Perspective-R6. In addition, a participant may elect to receive benefit payments while still employed, payable as a lump sum or in 8, 12 or 16 quarterly installments. Change in Control Arrangements. In Allergan terminated all individual change in control agreements with its named executive officers. Upon termination of the agreement, the executive became eligible for coverage under the CIC Policy, which has been in effect since April and formally applied on a go-forward basis to all new hires and promotions. The CIC Policy provides certain benefits in the event of a change in control as defined below. The policy prohibits excise tax gross-ups and benefit enhancements, such as pension credits, in the event of qualifying terminations following a change in control. Executive Severance Pay Plan. Pyott, Ingram and Edwards prior to his resignation as executive officer un August and Dr. Participants are also entitled to receive outplacement counseling services for a period determined by us. Amended and Restated Severance Pay Plan. Table of Contents In addition, in the event of Mr. In the case of death or disability, the portion of the award that vests on an accelerated basis will be reduced pro-rata based on the shortened employment period. Under our supplemental retirement plans, in the event of a change in control, each participant will receive a lump sum payment in lieu of accrued benefits under the plans based on a more favorable 3. Termination under our supplemental retirement plans can be for any reason whatsoever, voluntary or involuntary. No amounts are shown regarding benefits for death, disability, qualifying termination without change in control and qualifying termination with a change in control in the table below, as the termination scenarios would occur on the last day of the performance period and thus the payout would be the same as if the change in control had not occurred. Excluded are benefits previously accrued under our Executive Deferred Compensation Plan, defined benefit retirement plan and two supplemental retirement plans. Also excluded are benefits provided to all employees, such as accrued vacation. While we have made reasonable assumptions regarding the amounts payable, there can be no assurance that in the event of a change in control, our named executive officers will receive the amounts reflected below. Table of Contents Name. Table of Contents Resignation of Mr. Edwards will remain employed by the Company in a non-executive officer capacity to facilitate a smooth transition. Edwards did not receive any severance or other benefits in connection with his resignation and is no longer entitled to benefits under the CIC Policy or the Executive Severance Plan. Director Compensation. Director Compensation Program. Each director may elect to receive the target fixed annual equity award grant value in: Any new option grants made to a non-employee director with at least six years of Board service would remain exercisable for the full ten-year maximum term. For restricted stock units, election must be made by the end of the calendar year prior to the annual meeting, and the restricted stock units would vest and be taxable one year after the grant date unless an election to defer receipt until termination of the board service. In addition to the foregoing, we reimburse our non-employee directors for the costs of attending up to two continuing education programs for directors per year. RPD have better performance than the current tests in signalling the suspect of sepsis. Moreover they represent a time-saving and faster test than ITR determination. Woodgate 2 , P. Barton 3 , P. Baines 2. However, there are concerns that the adverse consequences of hypoglycaemia may outweigh the benefits of tight glucose control in paediatrics. Prior to starting a randomised trial of aggressive glucose control in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit PICU the results from 3 different methods for measuring glucose in critically ill children were compared. The glucose concentrations obtained from automated laboratory equipment, ward based blood gas analyser BGA and bedside glucometer MediSense were compared from critically ill children having routine blood tests, in a 20 bed regional PICU in England. In the absence of a gold standard, these measurements were compared one with another. Only There is considerable disagreement between the glucose concentrations measured using the different methods. This may produce difficulties with attempts to aggressively control glucose. Parkins 1 , N. Ellis 1. Adverse drug events have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The PICU at RLCH admits approximately patients per year from neonates to 18 years and as drugs are prescribed on a weight or surface area basis the risk of adverse drug events is high. Using the last 3 years of PICU adverse event database and a Pharmacy intervention audit June we identified high alert drugs. Assessed whether awareness of events and interventions are reducing incidents. Top 5 groups of drugs identified requiring intervention: Prophylactic Cardiac antibiotics, sedation and analgesia, Potassium chloride, dinoprostone and inotropes, and heparin. Interventions identified as effective: Each change in guidelines has been backed up with notification and training by our education team. All events involving nursing staff are flagged to our nurse education team so that individual training needs can be met, and any general training issues identified. To increase awareness of adverse incidents we also use simulation training. This has helped improve recognition of events and awareness of methods to minimise effects. Adverse incidents are now discussed at medical, nursing and AHP new staff induction and at annual mandatory training. Simplifying drug guidelines and increasing their availability appear to have helped reduce adverse drug events on PICU. Increasing awareness through multidisciplinary adverse events team responsible for investigation and feedback and education and training are also significant factors. Kasmi, G. Kasmi, S. Sallabanda, E. Kola, I. Lluka, F. Zavalani, K. Marku, G. Sallabanda, A. Nosocomial infections are important causes of mortality morbidity and prolonged hospital stay in PICU. CDC criteria were used as standard definitions for NI. Data including extrinsic risk factors invasive devices associated with NI were recorded. During the study period were admitted patients — no surgical and 79 surgical patients with mean age of The incidence rate of NI during the study period was Urinary tract infections the respiratory tract infections blood stream infections were the most encountered with a rate of 4 per cent 3 per cent 1. The etiologic profile was as follow — gram negative The length of hospital stay in infected patients was longer than in no infected patients This study highlights the importance of NI surveillance and the necessity to evaluate preventive measures and design control guidelines which could reduce their consequences. Open endotracheal suctioning may lead to alveolar decrecruitment 1 , which can be monitored by means of functional residual capacity FRC measurements 2. We hypothesized that a recruitment strategy based on FRC measurements would improve oxygenation after an open endotracheal suctioning manoeuvre. We studied 65 postoperative mechanically ventilated cardiac surgery patients. All patients received an open suctioning procedure 20 sec, 14 F catheter, mmHg negative pressure. Prospectively patients were stratified into two groups by the post suctioning FRC value A: A FRC guided alveolar recruitment strategy after open endotracheal suctioning restored reduced FRC and showed short term improvements of oxygenation in patients after cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, a recent clinical trial failed to show any protective effect derived from the use of high compared to moderate PEEP levels. We studied ventilated patients fulfilling criteria for ARDS, who underwent a protocol including 4 ventilatory modes: All patients were sedated and paralyzed, connected to a pneumotach Hans Rudolph, Inc. After having a thorax CTscan, a transverse region 2 cm over the diaphragm was chosen and cine-CTs of 8 seconds at this fix transverse region were performed at each ventilator mode LightSpeed VCT, GE; image reconstruction at 0,25sec images, 0. These data are consistent with results observed in large clinical trials on protective strategies. Carvalho 1 , P. Pelosi 2 , A. Barrenengoa 1 , T. Koch 1 , M. Gama de Abreu 1. Ten pigs 30— After stabilization, a recruitment maneuver was performed 50 cmH2O, 40 s. At each step, arterial and mixed venous blood samples were obtained and cardiac output CO was measured. In six animals CT-Group , whole lung helical CT-scans 1 mm thickness were obtained at each step during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses. Airway pressure and flow signals were recorded and elastance of the respiratory system Ers , resistance Rrs and PEEP continuously computed by the least squares method. The best PEEP was then assessed considering four definitions: Results are presented as median and inter-quartiles. Comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon's test and adjusted with the Bonferroni-Holm procedure. The stepwise reduction of PEEP resulted in an increase of cardiac output and arterial blood pressure, as well as a reduction of total lung volume TLV and volume of intrapulmonary gas. This criterion could be useful to achieve improved pulmonary function and aeration simultaneously. Bergmann 2 , M. Ragaller 1 , I. Pietzsch 2. There are only limited data about the influence of posture on the pulmonary perfusion Qr in small animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify Qr in prone and supine position in terms of their imaging manifestations in healthy rats. Qr was achieved by imaging the radioactivity distribution in the lungs. After first measurement animals were arranged in opposite position and the PET measurement was repeated. The 3D data were at first manually coregistered and residual differences in the relative positioning of the lungs were corrected user independently Rover, ABX GmbH, Germany. Masks for defining regions of interest ROI were set in the coregistered volume data for all animals. Mean normalized Qr values Qmean of the dorsal and ventral parts of the lungs were calculated on the basis of an automatic ROI-setting including threshold analysis. Qmean was not affected by posture. The influence of posture on regional perfusion was demonstrated, for our knowledge, for the first time in rodents. Qr was significantly decreased from dorsal to ventral regions in supine infused animals. Lung structure distribution changes were minor. Distribution pattern of regional perfusion in prone and supine position in normal rat lungs will be used as reference data set for further studies on injured rat lungs. Wrigge 1 , J. Zinserling 1 , U. Putensen 1. PaCO2 was not different 38 6 vs 37 5. Bojic 1 , U. Holzinger 2 , F. Mallner 1 , M. Rohwer 1 , G. Heinz 3 , P. Schellongowski 1 , K. Laczika 1 , G. Locker 1. However, neither hospital stay nor days on ventilator or mortality could be positively influenced by CLRT. We performed a prospective randomized trial of the efficacy of CLRT in mechanically ventilated patients with respect to VAP prophylaxis. Patients were eligible if not suffering from pneumonia or acute lung injury but in the need for mechanical ventilation. Rotation had to be performed for at least 18 hours per day. Suctioning and change of ventilator circuits were standardized. Sedation was allowed only if clinically indicated. All patients received enteral nutrition if possible. Endpoints of the study were spontaneous breathing, death, lack of tolerance, or development of pneumonia defined as newly acquired infiltrate in two consecutive chest x-rays plus signs of inflammation plus purulent bronchial secretions. Patients suffered mostly from resuscitation after cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, neurological diseases, or COPD. Groups were comparable with respect to diagnoses and severity of disease. Development of pressure sores, duration of sedation, days on enteral feeding as well as use antibiotics was comparable. It exerts additive effects to other prophylactic measures like semirecumbent position and standardized ventilation and suctioning protocols. Lower VAP rate seems to result in shorter duration of ventilation and length of hospital stay. CLRT is not well tolerated in non-sedated patients during the weaning process. Subglottic secretion drainage SSD via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube has recently been introduced in clinical practice for prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia VAP , since it is cosidered to reduce micro-aspiration of secretions from the area around the cuff. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a tracheostomy tube with SSD versus conventional tracheostomy tube on the incidence of VAP in ICU patients. SSD was performed hourly, applying a suction of cmH2O. Clinical pulmonary infection score plus quantitative culture of protected specimen brushing were used for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The following data were recorded: Demographic data were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The incidence of pneumonia between the groups was compared by the x 2 test and outcome was compared by the Fisher test. The results of this comparative study are shown on the table below. According to the results of this study, the use of a tracheostomy tube with intermittent subglottic drainage does not reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, compared to conventional tracheostomy tube, in patients staying in the ICU longer than 7 days. Cossio 1 , J. Mora 1 , M. Badiel 2 , M. Vargas 1 , M. Gomez 1 , J. Martinez 1 , C. Salas 1 , F. Rosso 3. Ventilador Asociated Pneumonia VAP is a significant cause of in-hospital morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries. Select oral care interventions, such as topical antiseptic agents, could reduce the occurrence of VAP. Some studies have suggested the benefit of the use of Chlorhexidine CHX for oral decontamination, nevertheless this benefit has not been completely proven. Observational study. Bidirectional cohort. Patients admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU of a University affiliated Hospital who needed mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more were eligible for recruitment. VAP adjusted Incidence rates of were compared with a cohort from October thru before CHX and after the implementation from — A bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Eight hundred thirty six patients needed mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during the study period — The overall VAP incidence rate was The table shows demographic characteristics of patients. VAP incidence rate was decreased after protocol implementation This simple intervention could be beneficial in the devolping countries were VAP incidence is higher. Kumwilaisak 2 , L. Berra 2 , S. Pivi 2 , C. Crimi 2 , J. Ufberg 3 , F. Kueppers 3 , L. Bigatello 2. However, recent data suggest that horizontal orientation of the endotracheal tube ETT decreases bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract, in comparison to semi-recumbent position. We designed a study to test the hypothesis that lateral, head down position, to achieve horizontal position of ETT, decreases aspiration of gastric contents in comparison to semi-recumbent position. We enrolled twenty adult patients intubated from less than hour and without signs of pulmonary infection. The first 10 consecutive patients were ventilated in the semi-recumbent position SR group and the following 10 patients in the lateral, head down position LHD group. Tracheal secretions were collected every 8 hours SR group or every 4 hours LHD group and tested for pepsin presence. Oral and gastric suctions were collected and tested for pepsin at baseline and every 12 hours. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, or T-test, as appropriate. The two groups were similar at baseline Table 1. Intubated patients ventilated in the semi-recumbent position manifest a high incidence of a marker of aspiration of gastric contents. Lateral, head down position doesn't decrease significantly this phenomenon. Using a combination of a N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonist NMDAa and remifentanil we attempted to use their synergistic effects in order to avoid hypnotic drug accumulation. We assessed the benefits of this Multimodal Short Sedation Regimen by comparing it to more conventional sedative protocols. All patients were sedated using a narcotic remifentanil 0. Titration of the sedative agents was done hourly in order to achieve a Sedation Agitation Score of 4 yawning; frown. Patients were randomized into two groups G: The different groups were compared as to Midazolam and Propofol requirements Mi. Demographic data were comparable in terms of mean Severity Acute Physiologic Score, age and gender. A to Cat. B through Cat. The Mi. A was 2—8. B2 it was 1. The Pr. C it was 0—10 in G2 and 0—3 in G1. The mean GHs was 2. The described Short Sedation Regimen is usable for medical, surgical and trauma patients. The titration synergy concept used by combining NMDAa, remifentanil and hypnotic agents allows a dose reduction for each individual drug, thus avoiding the risk of hypnotic accumulation. As a result it decreases Intensive Care stay and subsequently has longterm financial implications. Romera, B. Valdivia, S. These phenomena greatly hinder patient management. The aim of this study is to analyse and describe the factors that could influence its onset. Prospective and descriptive study carried out in an intensive care unit ICU of a University hospital. We included ventilated patients that received midazolam to achieve the proposed sedation aims: We defined therapeutic failure as the need to administer more than 0. All patients were treated with intravenous opiates. We analyzed demographical, clinical, and outcome data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate significant risk factors and logistic regression was used to fit the model. On univariate and multivariate analysis the associated variables were: Male gender OR 1. Ages between 45 to 65 have an OR 2. Male gender, being younger, being mechanically ventilated for respiratory insufficiency and receiving midazolam during 5 or more days are the main risk factors leading to midazolam therapeutic failure. Barturen 3 , J. Borrallo 4. There is great variability in the sedo-analgesic strategies used in critically ill ventilated patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the current sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular blockade practises in adult ICUs in Spain. Descriptive study based on an in-person survey of sixty physicians, representative of 60 ICUs. All were critical care specialists or anaesthesia specialists with direct responsibility in critical care management. A questionnaire was developed for this study and consisted of 19 questions on different aspects of usual practises. Each specialist surveyed, anonymously, chose one of five options for each answer. Each answer represents the usual practises in their ICUs, not their personal thought. Over 40 pawpaw cultivars are currently commercially available and Kentucky State University has the world's largest pawpaw breeding program to develop superior new cultivars. Cultivars are propagated by grafting onto seedling rootstock, most often by chip budding or whip and tongue grafting. This study examined eleven pawpaw cultivars and KSU advanced selections and four grafting methods [chip budding, whip and tongue, TopGrafter Raggett Industries Ltd. Grafting success did not vary by method or tool used. Grafting success overall was lower than is generally seen in pawpaw, possibly due to improper storage of scion wood, environmental conditions, or poor timing or technique. This study indicates that chip budding, whip and tongue grafting, or use of a tool, such as the TopGrafter or grafting tool, are equally successful methods for propagating pawpaw trees. Pawpaw currently has a small but growing market. Pawpaw seedlings are often grown in containers in greenhouses prior to being planted in orchards. Coconut coir is a byproduct of the coconut industry and offers increased sustainability over peat. The objective of this study was to determine whether pawpaw seedlings had better growth in a peat-based growing medium or a peat and coir-based medium. In September, germination rate, height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were recorded. No significant differences were observed between the two media. The results of this study indicate that growing media containing peat and coconut coir can be used without negatively impacting pawpaw seedling growth. Compost and compost tea have been shown in practice to be valuable soil amendments in many horticultural applications; however, little rigorous quantitative work has been completed on the effect of compost tea on plant health and growth. Researchers designed a side by side trial with two replications to quantifiably study the impact of compost tea on the growth of hydroponic lettuce and soil-grown lettuce. A poultry-litter-based aerobic compost tea was used for the treatment. In both trials, six plants received each treatment or control. Researchers hypothesized the treatment lettuce would show more vigor and vegetative growth than control. The null hypothesis was that treatment lettuce would be identical to control lettuce. Researchers failed to reject null hypothesis. Plants treated with compost tea were almost twice the size of control plants. Researchers concluded compost tea was superior to water. Further research is needed to delineate best practices for making compost tea and maximizing its effect on vegetative growth. This research focuses on soil water nitrate and phosphorus contained in soil solutions upon implementation of an organically managed corn and soybean crop-livestock rotation including small ruminants. It is well documented that agricultural contributions of nitrogen and phosphorus-containing compounds into the environment have increasingly been evaluated as pollutants to water resources, resulting in groundwater contamination, eutrophication, as well as having potentially negative effects on human health. Using pressure-vacuum soil water samplers to obtain a water sample from below the root zone of each system, the extracted solution will be examined using microplate methods to determine total phosphate concentration and by colorimetric methods for nitrate concentrations. Eggplant, Solanum melongena var. Epic, was field grown in fourteen soil amendments at the University of Kentucky South Research Farm to investigate the impact of soil amendments on crop yield and fruit quality characteristics. The seven primary soil treatments were: Eggplant seedlings were hand transplanted into freshly tilled soil at row spacing of eighteen inches. Five eggplant harvests were obtained during the entire growing season. The total number of fancy fruits produced from soil amended with horse manure was significantly greater compared to plots amended with chicken manure and sewage sludge. Similarly, total weight of the fruits No significant differences were found between biochar and no-biochar soil treatments, indicating the addition of biochar had no impact on eggplant yield and fruit quality. Nosema ceranae is a fungus that infects the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Honey bees consume spores of the fungus through food sharing or cleaning the hive. These spores travel to the midgut, germinate, and spread through epithelial cells. A longitudinal histological examination of the spread of the disease in the midgut has not yet been described. Beginning at 2 DAI days after inoculation to 12 DAI, five midguts were removed for histology and five for spore count and examination every two days. The midgut tissue used for histological purposes was treated following standardized procedures. Tissue samples were stained with calcofluor white and biebrich scarlet fluorescent stains. Infections were found to develop in small clusters in a few of the epithelial cells at 8 DAI. By 10 and 12 DAI, the infection had spread throughout most of the midgut, including the cells bordering the basement membrane. Cropping production and tillage systems lead to loss of soil organic matter SOM , lowering soil pH, and soil compaction in Kentucky. However, the magnitude of the changes varied among the soil properties. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the changes of SOM, soil pH, and soil compaction under different cropping systems like corn-soybean-tobacco rotation Field 1 , continuous corn field Field 2 , hemp field Field 3 , wheat field Field 4 , pasture with animal grazing Field 5 , and canola field Field 6. The prominent soil textures in all fields are silt loam and silt clay loam. Disturbed soil samples were taken at the depth of cm and cm to measure SOM and soil pH. There were three replications from each field. The results indicated that the canola field which has been under no till for over fifteen years had the highest SOM at an average of 4. At similar depth, continuous cornfield had the second lowest amounts of SOM which was 2. The canola field and the continuous cornfield had soil pH of 6. The averages of soil compaction from all fields were psi in cm, and psi in cm. The highest compaction was found in the field under animal grazing at psi the lowest was under tobacco at The findings from this study revealed that SOM, soil pH, and soil compaction changed as affected by cropping practices. Pawpaw Asimina triloba is a tree fruit native to the eastern United States and is a niche crop for local markets. Fruit drop is a natural mechanism by which the tree reduces crop load in fruit crops. Fruit drop right after flowering is known as 'First drop' whereas fruit drop during June is called 'June drop'. Although adequate fruit thinning is necessary to produce large quality fruits, excess thinning reduces the yield. Fungicides are used to control fruit diseases, but their effects on fruit drop has not been examined in pawpaw. This study aimed to determine whether the application of sulfur and copper fungicides affected June drop of 'Sunflower' and 'Susquehanna' varieties of pawpaw. Eight trees per variety and ten random fruit clusters per tree were selected for treatment. The fruit clusters were treated with two levels of each fungicide sulfur: Treatments were applied at day intervals until harvest. Fruit numbers in each treatment cluster were recorded the first week of June and at the time of harvesting in late August. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and mean treatment differences using Costat statistical software. Final results will be discussed. Variation in annonaceous acetogenins activity in twig tissues of pawpaw varieties and new advanced selections using the brine shrimp test assay. Pawpaw [Asimina triloba L. Dunal], a tree fruit native to eastern North America, contains annonaceous acetogenins in the fruit and vegetative tissues that display pesticidal and anti-tumor activities. Previous studies have identified asimicin, bullatacin, bullatalicin, and 40 other bioactive acetogenins in the crude extracts of twigs, unripe fruit, seeds, root, bark, and ripe fruit of pawpaw. The brine shrimp test BST is a useful tool in observing the biological activities of bioactive chemicals in plant extracts. In this study, we aimed to determine the variation in annonaceous acetogenin activity in twig tissues of different pawpaw varieties and new advanced selections Hi , Hi , Sunflower, and Susquehanna. Pawpaw twigs were collected from trees of pawpaw varieties and advanced selections at KSU Research and Demonstration Farm. Dried twig tissues 2. Concentrated extract from twigs was transferred to vials to create concentrations of 0, 1. BST was used to determine the mortality rate for twig tissues and used to calculate an LC50 for each pawpaw genotype. Study results will be discussed. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are of interest to Kentucky growers because they can be grown organically and are able to produce a locally produced, niche-market crop from July until October. This provides an extended season for fruit sales at farmers' markets, community supported agriculture programs, and organic markets. Plants were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 3 blocks, including 5 plants of each cultivar per block for a total of 15 plants of each cultivar in a 3 meter plot. Spacing was 0. Rows were spaced 4 meters apart. This trial was planted on certified organic land and managed with organic practices following the National Organic Program standards. Weed control was achieved by mechanical cultivation and hand weeding. Plants were irrigated weekly with t-tape laid in the rows. Primocane fruit production began in the second week of August for both selections. In previous years, both selections had similar fruit sizes and yields. Continued observation is needed to determine overall trends. Anthropology and Sociology - Poster Presentations. My ethnographic project explores work life, expressions of hegemonic masculinity, identity, and the role of homosocial intimacy in the context of Ohio River barge deckhands. The barge work environment is defined by isolation and day work periods where crewmen live in tight proximity. Deckhands frequently express a binary mindset toward their identity in which they maintain both an on-shore identity and a river persona. On a local scale, this work seeks to shed light on river labor and the men who perform it. Barge crews have a unique, yet little studied culture in which hegemonic masculinity is a central component. In a larger context, this research aims to provide insight into the effects participation in hegemonic gender expression can have on work life. I report on this excavation which revealed rich archaeological potential for understanding the lives of prehistoric peoples of this area. Artifacts found at the Glacken site during the field school include lithic tools, animal bones, and freshwater shell. The Parker Academy had a longstanding history of being a home for the abolitionist movement. Founded in , the Parker family of New Richmond, Ohio created the first all-inclusive academy that provided education to students regardless of race, gender, political identity, or religious affiliation. Students from across the country attended the Academy. The multidisciplinary approach the Parkers used to facilitate inclusion aimed to establish an all-encompassing educational environment, which was not only fascinating, but uniquely ahead of its time. By closely networking with educators, artists, students, religious leaders, politicians, lobbyists and freedom fighters, the Parkers established a school of inclusiveness far exceeding the standard of the mid to late 's. Spanning the ranges of scientific study from anthropology, archaeology, history and public history, to local historians and educators; researchers have been able to piece together groundbreaking discoveries of the underground abolitionist movement throughout the Ohio River Valley. Investigating the Parker Academy connections and networks through anthropological methods has allowed for new depths in the study of the abolitionist network to be reached. Through researchers' efforts in applying the same multidisciplinary approach facilitated by the Parkers, it has taught us to utilize resources previously untapped by the constraints of our individual subjective disciplines. While opening our realms of research to new ideas and methods, a more holistic approach allows for a wider breadth of knowledge. For example, an accompanying art installation was composed using the Abby Warburg's mnemosyne concepts of memory to show and to emphasize the multiple aspects of research used. The school also served as an open home to many children who were given opportunities that they would not have had otherwise. The Parker Academy was an educational institution that taught many children who came from different backgrounds, regardless of race or gender. Students at the Academy were all taught in the same rooms and all had the same opportunities. With the murmurings of women's rights, the girls educated at the Academy found a voice. The Academy's instructors taught them that they too have rights to be educated, to educate and to create a difference in society. With the fact that the Academy itself has almost been forgotten, so have the young women who attended the Academy, who so wanted to express themselves in broader American culture. Through the written records of the Parker family's archives their voices and ideas have been revitalized. Historical analysis of the Parker family archive and the students detailed in it show that even before the confirmed start date of women's suffrage that women were already beginning to realize that they too mattered. When young women graduated from The Parker Academy, they realized important position in society, and they went on to be influential parts of the abolitionist and the suffrage movements. Resveratrol 3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene is a polyphenol found naturally in plants which is linked to biochemical properties that may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions when consumed. Peanut sprouts Arachis hypogaea are one of many plants that naturally contain resveratrol, and this work studied the effects of fermented oak tree saw dust on germination of peanuts in order to increase germination and consequently increase resveratrol. Germination of peanut sprouts was quantified in two initial trials under optimal growth conditions. For germination, the most important conditions are temperature and moisture. The varying factor in the sprout germination was the fermentation time of the saw dust prior to planting the peanut seeds. Saw dust fermented for 0 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days were used in this study. In these initial trials, the results indicate that oak tree saw dust fermented for 45 days was most efficient in increased germination. In the future, more trials will be conducted, and resveratrol content will be analyzed as well as the microbiome content. The next phase of this study is to utilize chitinase water for reduced fungal growth interference to further increase germination of peanut sprouts for increased resveratrol. Cellular and Molecular Biology - Poster Presentations. Fruit flies D. The invasion of the Air Sac Primordia ASP , an organ analogous to the human lung, into the Wing Imaginal Disc WID of larval fruit flies is closely related to tumor metastasis in humans, as both processes use similar mechanisms to break down the basement membrane. By studying genes responsible for ASP invasion, researchers may be able to identify analogous genes in humans responsible for tumor metastasis. A genetic screen, using 65 protein trap lines, was conducted to find genes expressed in ASP and potentially involved in ASP invasion. The protein trap lines tagged endogenous proteins with a Green Fluorescent Protein GFP to indicate tissue localization of selected proteins under a fluorescent microscope. WID were isolated from 10 third instar larvae of each line and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. The gene responsible was Apontic apt. The screen is ongoing and we hope to be able to identify more genes expressed in the ASP. To better understand the role of Calcineurin-binding protein 1 Cabin1 in the developing nervous system, the zebrafish cerebellum was used as a model system during the different stages of maturity to asses cabin1 cell type-specific gene expression. Cabin1 is a gene that acts as a negative regulator to proteins that are known to control cerebellar granule cell production and survival. Therefore, cabin1 is expected to be expressed in granule cell precursors and mature granule cells. The cell types being tested for cabin1 expression were granule cells, Purkinje cells, eurydendroid cells, and their precursors. Single and double in situ hybridization were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression. Basement Membranes BM are important for normal development and tumor progression. In order to get a better understanding of BM dynamics we identified genes that encoded BM interacting proteins. One such gene is predicted to be involved in vesicle-mediated transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterize this gene by utilizing molecular biology techniques like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis utilizing antibodies generated in the laboratory. Anti-body staining indicates tissue and cell specific localization pattern for this protein. This pattern is similar to RNA in situ hybridization pattern observed in various tissues. Data related to this proteins' involvement in vesicle-mediated transport will be presented. Nonstructural protein 1 NS1 functions in the replication of positive-sense RNA genomes of flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, and is highly homologous among flaviviruses. Glycosylated NS1 can be found in the blood of infected individuals up to nearly two weeks after infection, therefore having the potential to be targeted for flavivirus diagnosis. One option for detection of NS1 in the bloodstream could entail taking advantage of the carbohydrate-binding properties of lectins. These proteins have been isolated from a variety of eukaryotes and prokaryotes and often bind to carbohydrate chains with high specificity. The rights offering will be made only by means of a prospectus meeting the requirements of the Securities Act of , as amended. The Company's vision is to be the world's preferred proprietary seed company which supplies a range of forage and specialty crop products that supports the growing global demand for animal proteins and healthier consumer diets..

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Taxi Xlsex Watch Ail paik mal sex hd Video Hugging Sex. Additionally, the Company is utilizing its research and breeding expertise to develop and produce stevia, the all-natural, zero calorie sweetener for the food and beverage industry. Safe Harbor Statement This release contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of , as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of , as amended and such forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of In effort to clear the discrepancies, 1. Our preliminary apatite thermochronologic age results show as young as 15 Ma cooling age that is integral for quantifying the rate and timing of the Tekeze River incision, and in a larger endeavor to constrain the Ethiopian Plateau uplift record. Mycoplasma iowae is an avian species of microbe that causes infection in poultry, causing joint abnormalities and in rare cases, mortality. Previous experiments have been performed to test virulence and have shown differential activity under different conditions. This experiment was performed to examine the virulence of the organism at avian body temperature as compared to standard incubation temperature. After initial runs, it appears there is a slight increase in pathogenicity at standard incubation temperature. This may indicate lower pathogenicity at higher temperatures. A phylodynamics approach to delineate its origin and its adaptation. This host-range shift of EIV from horses to dogs and its establishment as an enzootic CIV is unique, as this shift was from one mammalian host to another. To understand this cross-species spread of influenza virus, we conducted a phylodynamics analysis of all available complete genome sequences. We found that: Our results provide a framework to understand the molecular basis of host-range shift of influenza virus, and that dogs are potential 'mixing vessels' for generating novel influenza virus. White Nose Syndrome WNS is a newly recognized disease responsible for the rapid mass destruction of the North American bat populations. This study addressed the novel inactivation of fungal spores from Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of WNS, using ultraviolet A UVA light at nm and methoxsalen, a photosensitizer from a family of compounds known as furanocoumarins. Penicillium crustosum, an environmental fungus, was studied as a comparator. Spore suspensions were soaked in specific concentrations of methoxsalen and subsequently exposed to UVA light. The plates were examined for both spore inactivation and resultant inhibition of colony growth. The importance of this study is the potential control of WNS and other destructive environmental fungi. Potential Use of Essential oils as Alternative Treatment for Bacterial Skin Infections Essential oils are natural plant extracts derived anywhere from the root to the flowers of plants. The oils have a rich history of therapeutic use for thousands of years and beside medicinal treatments, the oils are also used in cosmetics, aromatherapy and household products. The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of commercially available essential oils for treatment against skin infection causing bacteria. Several essential oils were tested to measure the potential bacteriostatic, bactericidal and anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils was quantified using standard methods, including disc diffusion and MIC using well plates. The anti-biofilm activity of the essential oils was analyzed on established and newly-forming biofilms of S. The effectivity of essential oils was quantified and compared with common antibiotics used against bacterial infections. In this study, we tested 16 different single oils and two proprietary blends and found that five single oils and one proprietary blend possess ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Among these cinnamon oil, oregano oil and thyme oil were found to be most effective essential oils against all bacterial strains that we tested. The results indicate that these oils can be considered for potentially antimicrobial benefits against bacterial skin infections in a home or professional setting, as they are known to be skin-safe and easily accessible. The purpose of this project is to develop new methods for controlling fungal growth. Fungi produce spores and mycotoxins that can cause disease in humans, animals, plants, and reduce the shelf life of various products. Spores from environmental fungi were exposed to various doses and wavelengths of ultraviolet UV light to determine their sensitivity to UV treatment. For some experiments, the fungal spores were exposed to photosensitizers to examine if they were able to enhance the sensitivity of the fungi to UV. Ongoing experiments will determine which UV wavelengths, doses, and co-treatments are best for controlling fungal growth. Little is known about metal and antibiotic cross resistance among bacteria in aquatic settings. Water samples were collected from six locations along the Kentucky River. Plate counting was used to quantify metal-resistant bacteria. Control and metal resistant isolates were transferred to plates containing antibiotics. Populations of cobalt, copper, silver, lead and chromium resistant bacteria were similar to the control. Cadmium and mercury resistant populations were significantly lower. Many isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefamandole sulfamethoxazole, penicillin, and vancomycin. Most inhibition of growth was seen with ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, doxycycline and rifampin. The results suggest there are much higher levels of metal resistance amongst the river bacterial isolates than expected. This space is available for speakers to practice their presentations. This room is available for speakers to practice their presentations. Light refreshments will be served. Poster presenters will be at their posters during the session, and posters will remain up until the end of the day on Saturday. Agricultural Science - Poster Presentations. Vegetable growers use sewage sludge SS as a soil amendment to reduce the impact of landfill disposal on environmental quality while providing an affordable source of fertilizer. Sewage sludge may contain high concentrations of heavy metals, which could result in elevated concentrations in fruits and vegetables and exposure to excessive levels of these metals. During a 5-year study, plots were planted with potato year 1 , sweet pepper year 2 , broccoli year 3 , squash year 4 , and eggplant year 5. The objectives of this investigation were: Levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in potatoes, peppers, and broccoli grown in SS-amended soil were not significantly different from control plants, whereas concentrations of Mo, Cu, and Zn were significantly greater in potato and peppers grown in SS-amended soil than in controls. Levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were not significantly different in potatoes, pepper, and broccoli grown in YWC-amended soil compared with SS-amended plants while Zn concentrations were significantly greater in peppers. Sprawling urban areas often result in the conversion of woodlands, grasslands, and agricultural fields into residential areas. This conversion leads to notable changes in the area's soils which exhibit significantly different properties than those of the pre-residential soil. After the initial disturbance, many factors influence the formation of the soil in these residential areas, especially time since the property's development. The objective of this research was to determine differences in soil properties due to the age of the residential lawns. The study was conducted in silt loam soils in Vanderburgh and Warrick Counties in southwest Indiana. Disturbed soil samples were taken from a forest and a grassland ecosystem in addition to the four lawns at depths of cm and cm to measure soil organic matter, aggregate stability, and soil acidity level. Soil compaction and soil color readings were also taken in each of the study sites. This research will be beneficial to homeowners seeking to improve the soil quality of their lawns and gardens. Study Case: Soil quality indicators are affected by tillage practices, like no-till NT and conventional tillage CT. Therefore, using tillage systems that provides an adequate growing environment for crops is crucial. The objective of this study was to compare selected soil properties collected from NT and CT systems in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. Three undisturbed and three disturbed soil samples were taken from the topsoil at the depth of 0 to 7. Disturbed soil samples were used to determine soil pH and SOM levels. In addition, a penetrometer was used to measure compaction levels in the soil. Statistical analysis was performed to test the significant effect of tillage practices on soil properties in questions. The results of this study would help farmers justify whether implementing a no-till or conventional tillage practices can improve soil quality indicators to promote crop production and sustainability. This tool is primarily used in the United Kingdom and New Zealand where dense stands of ryegrass are common. The study evaluated the New Zealand calibration equation and compared its results to the actual yield of thirty-six 5x25 plots of perennial species. A regression analysis was administered to find the correlation between height and yield of perennial forage. This data will be used to show that a novel calibration equation will be needed per species. Being able to understand the characteristics of soils that are under varying management conditions is key to proper soil management. This study was designed to evaluate the variances of overall soil quality per its characteristics and how they correlate to different land management conditions found on an operational farm. The study was conducted in Butler County, KY. Undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were taken at depths of In addition, samples were also collected in the same manner from a field planted using a no till method, a grazing pasture that has not been tilled but has active livestock present, and woodlands that have not been tilled. These samples were analyzed for soil water retention, soil organic matter, pH level, bulk density, and porosity. The results will be discussed in the poster. Understanding the properties of cropland soils under conventional tillage systems is important when considering land management and yield maximization. Soil organic matter content, porosity, acidity levels, and soil fertility levels are important tools when considering the maintenance of agricultural lands. These properties are important indicators of soil quality and health to promote crop productivity. Therefore, this study was designed to determine soil properties of conventional tillage cropland and how they correlate to two respective crops; soybeans and corn. All eight fields studied were under similar management practices with each having a history of five or more years of use in rotational row-crop agriculture. Disturbed soil samples were collected from a depth of cm from corn fields that were under the implementation of crop rotation and conventional tillage systems. An equal number of samples were also collected from soybean fields under the same conditions. These samples were analyzed for soil organic matter, porosity, and acidity levels. A statistical analysis was conducted to determine the effects of corn and soybean cropping on soil properties. The results of this study will be discussed in the poster. Pot-in-pot nursery production can be a viable income source for Western Kentucky farmers. One of the highest costs of production in this system was the planting media that plants were grown in. Economical alternatives to high-priced, non-renewable peat-based mixes were important to consider. Unique to this region, were two renewable soil amendments that may help farmers to widen their profit margin in a pot-in-pot system. This research looked at the economic viability of locally sourced horse stall waste and municipal compost as soil amendments to a traditional bark and peat based mix. Initial cost projections were favorable for both amendments. Further research is warranted on the agronomic suitability of the amendments to nursery stock production. Several studies have evaluated the effects of live yeast products on rumen bacterial populations in ruminants; however, comparison of responses to yeast supplementation across studies requires caution because of the diversity of yeast products and compositions. This study utilized 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid rRNA sequencing to evaluate the effects of a live yeast product containing a thermally stable blend of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mannan oligosaccharides, and beta-glucans on rumen bacterial diversity of beef steer. Eight rumen-cannulated steers were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment sequences in a study with two d experimental periods and a crossover design. Dietary treatments were: Live yeast supplementation increased relative abundance of fibrolytic bacteria Ruminococcaceae and Christensenellaceae R-7 and reduced relative abundance of aerobic Comamonas and Arcticibacter and lactic acid-producing bacteria Lactococcus. These findings confirm that live yeast supports the growth of fiber digesters, optimizes utilization of oxygen and lactic acid, and inhibits the growth of pathogenic Salmonella in the rumen. High-throughput sequencing has been used to elucidate the effects of yeast products on rumen microbial population; however, alterations in the types of rumen metabolites have not been completely described. This study applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to evaluate effects of a live yeast product on the rumen fluid metabolome of beef steers. Rumen fluid was collected on the last day of each period. A total of metabolites were identified. Pathway analysis revealed that these metabolites are involved in metabolism of amino acids, energy, vitamins, and secondary metabolites. Two metabolites 4-cyclohexanedione and glucopyranoside were increased, whereas 6 metabolites threonic acid, xanthosine, deoxycholic acid, lauroylcarnitine, methoxybenzoic acid, and pentadecylbenzoic acid were decreased by YEA relative to CON treatment. Decreased levels of threonic acid, a product of ascorbic acid and oxygen interaction, and xanthosine, a product of guanosine deamination, indicates oxygen-scavenging and amino acid-sparing functions of live yeast in the rumen. This study supports the usefulness of metabolomic analysis for deciphering the mode of action of live yeast. Effects of water soluble fertilizers on growth performance of lotus plants in containers. Changzheng Wang. Lotus can be grown for foods because its seeds and roots are all edible and its flowers can be used for ornamental purposes. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that lotus plants could grow in containers in Kentucky. However, management of the plants such as fertilization is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of fertilization rate on the growth performance of lotus plants. Lotus space 36 variety were tested with four levels of fertilization were tested in an experiment with 24 plastic containers 18 gallon volume. The containers were filled with garden soil 40 cm deep and collected rain water covering the soil and 10 cm below the rim of the containers. One root tube was planted into each container on May 1, Four levels of a water soluble fertilizer Miracle Grow , 10g, 20g, 30g or 40g was applied to each container one month after the tubes were planted into the containers and at least one standing leaf had grown in each container. The number of floating leaves, standing leaves, flowers and seeds were enumerated each week. The number of standing leaves and total number of leaves increased from containers with 10g fertilizers to containers with 20g fertilizers. However, the number of leaves tended to become lower in containers with 40g fertilizer, but the number of flowers and seeds produced tended to be higher. The results indicate that fertilization increased leaf growth or seed production. Fertilization at 40g per container tended to improve seed production more than leaf growth. The health of soil is not only important for the large-scale farmer but also a concern for those living in suburban homes and those running smaller scale farms. Although soils contain a plethora of elements, nitrogen is the most important for plant growth. It is a major component in chlorophyll, a compound by which plants, such as yard grass, use the energy of the sun to produce sugars from both water and carbon dioxide. In addition, it plays an important role in amino acids, which are the building blocks of plant proteins. In Kentucky there are 5, equine farms creating fresh organic manure readily available at a less expense than the common inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, nitrogen fertilizer and horse manure were applied to the top soil and sub soil. Soil color, soil pH, and organic matter were analyzed two to four weeks after applications. Statistical analysis was used to test the significant effect of soil amendments on the top soil and sub soil. Organic horse manure may become a more routine option for yard health in urban communities and gardens. Results of this experiment will be presented on the accompanying poster. This research will be beneficial for household owners to maintain healthy yards, gardens, and water systems. The number of farmers' markets has been increasing very rapidly in the United States. However, the number of foodborne illnesses linked to fresh produce has increased in the last decade. The purpose of this research was to assess Kentucky consumers' perceptions of safety of locally grown fresh produce sold at farmers' markets. Surveys were administered to consumers at 8 farmers' markets, and completed surveys were analyzed. Ninety-seven percent of participants stated that product freshness and product taste were very important or extremely important reasons for shopping at the local farmers' markets. The consumers believe that farmers Pawpaw Asimina triloba is a tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Several commercial pawpaw orchards are planted in Kentucky and elsewhere in the US and worldwide to satisfy a growing market for fresh fruit and value-added products, such as beer, wine, jam, and ice cream. Seedling fruit often have bitter or off flavors, small fruit, many seeds, and low yields; therefore, planting grafted trees of named cultivars is recommended for optimal fruit production. Over 40 pawpaw cultivars are currently commercially available and Kentucky State University has the world's largest pawpaw breeding program to develop superior new cultivars. Cultivars are propagated by grafting onto seedling rootstock, most often by chip budding or whip and tongue grafting. This study examined eleven pawpaw cultivars and KSU advanced selections and four grafting methods [chip budding, whip and tongue, TopGrafter Raggett Industries Ltd. Grafting success did not vary by method or tool used. This caused me to rounds twice a week. On one faith that everything would was born lose around 30kg. His when I found out that I was 12 birth defects, abnormalities and adjusting to the work birth weight was 3. In November , after a My body took a while moms have difficulties in Taking insulin four times a few months of having severe to adjust to the diabetic surviving. How, statistically, day at work was so difficult. There were times which was actually me contraceptive that I was are prevalent. I was given when I did not pack enough slipping into and out of a taking. I thought that the the option to abort, but had food for the day, then there diabetic coma , I was rushed irregular periods were due to to decide straight away. I was diagnosed the diabetes. There were also I burst into tears. I had mixed me tired and dizzy. I had with type one diabetes. The See table for the difference my first pregnancy , which is and sadness because I was nausea made everything more between type one and two. I could barely get an My dad passed away at the realise that I was expecting. I was shocked about apple in. I also struggled to young age of 42 after a long the extreme risks involved, concentrate. I had to go to the hospital I was shocked and in denial. My to sleep. I would sleep almost tummy was becoming more sitting up because I struggled uncomfortable. Eventually to breathe. My back gave me my boss and I reached an problems. By 32 weeks Chloe agreement that I would weighed 2. So not only was I the pregnancy I was told carrying big, but I had too that I would have to have a much amniotic fluid. I began caesarean section. This really to dread the weekly visits scared me, but the doctors because any small thing like advised me that natural birth glucose in urine meant that I was too risky. The c-section would have to be admitted. A macrosomic baby went through to the theatre simply means a big baby and Chloe was born weighing with a birth weight of over five kilograms. The caesar 4. Because the baby grows was painless and without too large in utero, it can complications. After her birth lead to birth complications Chloe was sent straight to the for the mother and health neonatal ICU and I was sent complications for baby. I was I felt like I could give devastated to be separated birth there and then. I was from my baby early on but she extremely tired, but battled needed medical attention. Not associated with being Associated with being overweight. No production of insulin. Have too little insulin or cannot use effectively, worsens with time. Patient eventually has no insulin production. Common occurrence of Fewer episodes of episodes of low blood sugar hypoglycaemia, depending level hypoglycaemia. Not preventable. Mostly preventable with a healthy lifestyle. On day three I was I eventually made it to the allowed to breastfeed and a nursery and was shocked to week after giving birth we see her in the NICU with so were finally sent home. After many wires attached to her. The doctors told me that However today we are both she had a dangerous blood doing really well and have sugar reading of 1. I cherish KNOW? High blood sugar trimester and your blood sugar should be pregnancy levels, so managing your levels before 13 weeks of pregnancy monitored regularly. You have to maintain ideal blood glucose get enough kilojoules and to avoid sugar Controlling your blood sugar becomes levels as explained by your doctor , eat highs and lows. A suitable, safe form of harder during pregnancy normally the correct balanced diet, exercise and exercise should also be discussed with during the second and third trimester take the correct medication. If at all possible, women with pre-existing is well controlled. Your doctor will advise Meeting with your doctor or nurse diabetes should self-monitor their blood if an early delivery is necessary. If you before falling pregnant is crucial to ensure glucose levels. This will have to be took insulin during your pregnancy, then that you have a healthy pregnancy. It is discussed with a healthcare practitioner, insulin might be given via injection or vital to have controlled diabetes even but should be in line with the pattern intravenously when labour begins. Insulin before falling pregnant, because you of testing and type of insulin that was requirements often drop quickly right after might only find out you are pregnant by used prior to the pregnancy. Your eyes giving birth. Pregnant moms with diabetes often have babies with considerably larger bodies than other babies. The extra sugar is converted to sugar which makes the baby fat. If the baby is too large for a vaginal birth, a c-section might be necessary. ON YOUR High blood sugar levels during your pregnancy — and specifically the 24 hours before the delivery — may cause your baby to have dangerously low blood sugar right after the birth. If this is the case, then baby will be monitored closely and given glucose intravenously. Insufficient calcium and magnesium levels may also occur, but can also be rectified with medication. Ntsiki Molefe Osman, medical advisor at Novo Nordisk; webmd. Log onto www. The number of magazines you can subscribe to annually at a reduced rate depends on your Vitality contact you. SMSes cost R1. The Discovery Vitality offer is only available to active Vitality members. Discounts available to visit www. Discovery Vitality Pty Ltd is an authorised financial services provider. Registration number: Terms and conditions apply. This special offer is valid until 30 November and applies to South African residents only. There is no discount on postage and VAT. Developed and endorsed their health and wellbeing — giving you The extensive range offers peace of mind when you moms and babies: This range is food including fruit, meals consultant Paediatrician, and desserts , cereals both Dermatologist and mix add milk and mix add Homeopath approved. Join our Facebook page, PurityPromise, for daily updates and competitions. Each SMS is charged at R1. Entries close 30 November If you would like to receive further communication from Your Pregnancy, please register on www. Winners will be published on www. Have you and your partner had a meaningful conversation about the parenting issues that could bond you more closely — or cause stress and resentment later on? You might is when one parent-to-be anticipates abstract way. They might hear you and you parent. If you are battling to communicate without conflict, now would be a good time to get some couples counselling, or at least a mediated discussion with a neutral third party, advises Jeanine. There will be three people involved now, not just two. Instead of buying bigger bras for pregnancy and nursing bras after baby, wear nursing bras while pregnant. Start use newborn nappies for a week or two being financially savvy no before he outgrows them. Get only the bare minimum of the essentials. Freeze plenty of homemade 2 Hold meals before D-day: The amniotic sac forms. Get familiar enough 17 be from paying cash for Ask for samples, with your paediatrician hospitals and doctors upfront. At the end of each 19 can. Schools all the way from 21 in cost between a private Save big by making your pre-school to high school room and room-share. This government assisted fund it can be far cheaper than a private Socks will do until they encourages parents to save for their hospital. Or go to a government hospital take those first steps. Consider cloth nappies — as much as 25 percent for each year of you can save R10 or saving maximum R per child. Buying one is ready. Trouble breastfeeding? Most government clinics will have a sister who knows a thing or two about breastfeeding, while maternity state hospitals usually have lactation consultants on staff. These visits can cost R or more a time at private well-baby clinics. Simply download and enjoy! He could measure about 1. Blood is flowing from one side of the heart to the other, bypassing the lungs. N othing is more frightening some mild cramping. In most cases the cause is when you are pregnant. Yet research has shown the entire lining of the uterus the chromosomal problems problems that one in five pregnant women will endometrium comes away as the body with the early development of the bleed during the first trimester. Implantation bleeding is usually cervix, as well as some drugs and but actually a pregnancy is only secure light and scanty and may last one or Rhesus incompatibility. Bleeding or spotting, if associated with lining of the uterus. Because implantation bleeding occurs cramping, fever or chills and pain that In order for a blastocyst the result at about the same time that your period comes and goes and is felt in the small of of the union of the sperm and the egg may start, many women think this is a the back radiating to the lower abdomen to survive and grow into an embryo, small, light period and are surprised to with loss of bloody tissue, is cause it needs to find a place in the wall of find out that they are indeed pregnant — for concern. Between five to and further along than they thought. If you suspect that you may be having seven days after ovulation the level Once the next period does not a miscarriage, or you are unsure why of the hormone progesterone is at its occur, and you know you are indeed you are bleeding, contact your doctor or highest, and this stimulates the growth pregnant, your doctor may have to use midwife immediately or go to be checked of the blood vessels that supply the other methods to date your pregnancy, at the hospital where you are planning to endometrium, which is the lining of the especially as you are likely to be unsure have your baby. It is always a good idea to check out any a pregnancy does not occur. This is then Also at this stage you have had no other bleeding at any stage of your pregnancy, recognised as your period. Your breasts have not if only for reassurance. YP When attachment of the blastocyst does started to enlarge and there are no outer take place in the lining of the womb, it is visible signs that you are pregnant. The phase, due to the changes in hormones. Another huge consideration for a blastocyst attaches itself by burrowing pregnant woman is ectopic pregnancy. This occurs when the pregnancy grows women will experience a bit of spotting Implantation bleeding has no ill effects in the fallopian tube instead of the that is known as implantation bleeding. Ectopic pregnancies occur in It occurs because the tiny blood vessels in twelve weeks can make you worry about one out of every 60 pregnancies, and the endometrium become disturbed at the the wellbeing of your baby and the can be life-threatening to the mother. Serious pain and internal bleeding can a small amount of blood dribbles down Almost all women think about the occur with ectopic pregnancies, so it through the cervix. This is normal and no possibility of a miscarriage during needs to be checked out. From crown to rump, your baby WHAT grows from about 2. U ntil fairly recently, and medical scientist at Genesis Genetics a girl or a boy — and its accuracy is 97 to parents who wanted or South Africa. This discovery offered 99 percent. We normally have years ago in selected centres only, it is your risk of miscarriage. You really had to two copies of every chromosome, with 46 now available across South Africa, and have a persuasive reason if you wanted to chromosomes in 23 pairs in total. Down the cost, while still in the region of a do the test — such as being at an increased syndrome, for example, is characterised belt-tightening R7 , has come down risk of genetic disorder in your family, by the presence of one extra chromosome. NIPT is over 99 percent accurate testing of amniocentesis or CVS, and leaves womb or from your placental tissue, in picking up Down syndrome and it is more time for parents to decide whether respectively. Because this is invasive, indeed most often used for this purpose. But does NIPT completely of amnio testing. So the risks to determine chromosomal ones. Down syndrome. But should you worry? A bladder infection ca n be cleared up q uickly and easily with a ntibiotics. Needless to say, urination, feeling a constant musculature and delayed day — approximately 1. This leads to an liquids. Other advice includes good reason to seek medical Town. Although genetic factors that influence her size will only begin to take effect at about 20 weeks, your nutrition and general health are already playing a vital role. Progress Baby is big enough and strong enough to wiggle, twist, kick and squirm but you are likely to only feel this from your fifth month. His ears are on the side of his head and can start hearing sounds. Rather avoid it. This laboratory to see which culture may cause a fever, which is present and the antibiotic is may predispose a patient chosen according to the test to going into labour. If this results from the laboratory. One of the major changes is the shift in your centre of gravity, which affects your posture T he enlarging belly seems to pull your body forward so that the spine assumes a greater curve than normal. The lower back the lumber spine becomes more hollow, while the upper back becomes more rounded. This causes the lower back muscles to shorten and weaken and therefore places great strain on the entire back. Instead of being short, thick and strong, they elongate and stretch by as much as 20cm to accommodate the expanding uterus. Birkenberg, B. Steinlechner, M. The correlation coefficient was determined by a simple regression analysis and mean bias as well as the upper and lower limits of agreement were calculated. A total of measurements were performed. TDCOs ranged from 2. The correlation coefficient r2 between these two methods was 0. Mean bias as well as lower and upper limits of agreement i. Luckner 1 , V. Mayr 1 , C. Torgersen 1 , V. Wenzel 1 , H. Ulmer 2 , W. Hasibeder 3 , N. Morgenthaler 4 , M. Innkreis, Austria, 4 Department of Research, B. Aktiengesellschaft, Henningsdorf, Germany. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS refers to the general activation of the immune system by non-infectious stimuli, which may cause cardiovascular failure and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction 1. Comparable to the clinical presentation of septic shock, hemodynamic instability associated with SIRS is characterized by hypovolemia and peripheral vasodilatation with or without myocardial dysfunction 2. Plasma AVP radioimmunoassay 3 and copeptin immunoluminometric assay 4 concentrations together with clinical parameters were documented daily during the first seven postoperative days. The AVP response significantly differed between the three groups. In patients without hemofiltration, copeptin levels could predict 28 day mortality with a high sensitivity and specifity. The postoperative AVP response in non-cardiac surgery patients seems well preserved. A contributory role of AVP to the failure to restore the vascular tone in patientswith vasodilatory shock cannot be excluded but seems less important than in septic or postcardiotomy shock. Jotterand 1 , M. Ranson 2 , M. Perez 3 , P. Cotting 3. In pediatric intensive care units, energy needs are complex to determine. Extracorporeal circulation EC that induces an inflammatory state could influences energy expenditure. EI were recorded daily and energy balance was calculated. Comparisons were tested by the t-test and the Bland-Altman method. In the 38 non EC patients, mean age was These results did not differ between groups. On day 1, CRP was Respiratory quotient was 0. Schofield estimated REE correctly for both groups. During the stay, EI was The balance was strongly negative during the first 6 days in EC and during the first 2 days in non EC. The balance became clearly positive since day 8 in EC and day 7 in non EC. The Schofield equation predicts very accurately REE in both groups. The energy balance remains negative longer in patients with EC compared to patients without EC. Grimaldi 1 , F. Scopacasa 1 , F. Raimondi 2. Neutrophils NE and bands counting are auxiliary test in detection of bacterial infections, even if the band count is a low-specificity test with high inaccuracy 1. Several experiences have been reported about the clinical usefulness of NE RPD in detecting sepsis in adults 3 , 4. We collected Coulter LH data of 62 neonatal samples with suspect of sepsis and 36 age-matched normal samples. ITR was calculated with cell count and sepsis was assessed with blood culture. The current cut-off of 0. A fast and correct diagnosis of sepsis is essential in the Intensive Care treatment of neonates and our data clearly show that NE RPD of Coulter LH series improve the process of detecting sepsis in neonates. RPD have better performance than the current tests in signalling the suspect of sepsis. Moreover they represent a time-saving and faster test than ITR determination. Woodgate 2 , P. Barton 3 , P. Baines 2. However, there are concerns that the adverse consequences of hypoglycaemia may outweigh the benefits of tight glucose control in paediatrics. Prior to starting a randomised trial of aggressive glucose control in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit PICU the results from 3 different methods for measuring glucose in critically ill children were compared. The glucose concentrations obtained from automated laboratory equipment, ward based blood gas analyser BGA and bedside glucometer MediSense were compared from critically ill children having routine blood tests, in a 20 bed regional PICU in England. In the absence of a gold standard, these measurements were compared one with another. Only There is considerable disagreement between the glucose concentrations measured using the different methods. This may produce difficulties with attempts to aggressively control glucose. Parkins 1 , N. Ellis 1. Adverse drug events have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The PICU at RLCH admits approximately patients per year from neonates to 18 years and as drugs are prescribed on a weight or surface area basis the risk of adverse drug events is high. Using the last 3 years of PICU adverse event database and a Pharmacy intervention audit June we identified high alert drugs. Assessed whether awareness of events and interventions are reducing incidents. Top 5 groups of drugs identified requiring intervention: Prophylactic Cardiac antibiotics, sedation and analgesia, Potassium chloride, dinoprostone and inotropes, and heparin. Interventions identified as effective: Each change in guidelines has been backed up with notification and training by our education team. All events involving nursing staff are flagged to our nurse education team so that individual training needs can be met, and any general training issues identified. To increase awareness of adverse incidents we also use simulation training. This has helped improve recognition of events and awareness of methods to minimise effects. Adverse incidents are now discussed at medical, nursing and AHP new staff induction and at annual mandatory training. Simplifying drug guidelines and increasing their availability appear to have helped reduce adverse drug events on PICU. Increasing awareness through multidisciplinary adverse events team responsible for investigation and feedback and education and training are also significant factors. Kasmi, G. Kasmi, S. Sallabanda, E. Kola, I. Lluka, F. Zavalani, K. Marku, G. Sallabanda, A. Nosocomial infections are important causes of mortality morbidity and prolonged hospital stay in PICU. CDC criteria were used as standard definitions for NI. Data including extrinsic risk factors invasive devices associated with NI were recorded. During the study period were admitted patients — no surgical and 79 surgical patients with mean age of The incidence rate of NI during the study period was Urinary tract infections the respiratory tract infections blood stream infections were the most encountered with a rate of 4 per cent 3 per cent 1. The etiologic profile was as follow — gram negative The length of hospital stay in infected patients was longer than in no infected patients This study highlights the importance of NI surveillance and the necessity to evaluate preventive measures and design control guidelines which could reduce their consequences. Open endotracheal suctioning may lead to alveolar decrecruitment 1 , which can be monitored by means of functional residual capacity FRC measurements 2. We hypothesized that a recruitment strategy based on FRC measurements would improve oxygenation after an open endotracheal suctioning manoeuvre. We studied 65 postoperative mechanically ventilated cardiac surgery patients. All patients received an open suctioning procedure 20 sec, 14 F catheter, mmHg negative pressure. Prospectively patients were stratified into two groups by the post suctioning FRC value A: A FRC guided alveolar recruitment strategy after open endotracheal suctioning restored reduced FRC and showed short term improvements of oxygenation in patients after cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, a recent clinical trial failed to show any protective effect derived from the use of high compared to moderate PEEP levels. We studied ventilated patients fulfilling criteria for ARDS, who underwent a protocol including 4 ventilatory modes: All patients were sedated and paralyzed, connected to a pneumotach Hans Rudolph, Inc. After having a thorax CTscan, a transverse region 2 cm over the diaphragm was chosen and cine-CTs of 8 seconds at this fix transverse region were performed at each ventilator mode LightSpeed VCT, GE; image reconstruction at 0,25sec images, 0. These data are consistent with results observed in large clinical trials on protective strategies. Carvalho 1 , P. Pelosi 2 , A. Barrenengoa 1 , T. Koch 1 , M. Gama de Abreu 1. Ten pigs 30— After stabilization, a recruitment maneuver was performed 50 cmH2O, 40 s. At each step, arterial and mixed venous blood samples were obtained and cardiac output CO was measured. In six animals CT-Group , whole lung helical CT-scans 1 mm thickness were obtained at each step during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses. Airway pressure and flow signals were recorded and elastance of the respiratory system Ers , resistance Rrs and PEEP continuously computed by the least squares method. The best PEEP was then assessed considering four definitions: Results are presented as median and inter-quartiles. Comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon's test and adjusted with the Bonferroni-Holm procedure. The stepwise reduction of PEEP resulted in an increase of cardiac output and arterial blood pressure, as well as a reduction of total lung volume TLV and volume of intrapulmonary gas. This criterion could be useful to achieve improved pulmonary function and aeration simultaneously. Bergmann 2 , M. Ragaller 1 , I. Pietzsch 2. There are only limited data about the influence of posture on the pulmonary perfusion Qr in small animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify Qr in prone and supine position in terms of their imaging manifestations in healthy rats. Qr was achieved by imaging the radioactivity distribution in the lungs. After first measurement animals were arranged in opposite position and the PET measurement was repeated. The 3D data were at first manually coregistered and residual differences in the relative positioning of the lungs were corrected user independently Rover, ABX GmbH, Germany. Masks for defining regions of interest ROI were set in the coregistered volume data for all animals. Mean normalized Qr values Qmean of the dorsal and ventral parts of the lungs were calculated on the basis of an automatic ROI-setting including threshold analysis. Qmean was not affected by posture. The influence of posture on regional perfusion was demonstrated, for our knowledge, for the first time in rodents. Qr was significantly decreased from dorsal to ventral regions in supine infused animals. Lung structure distribution changes were minor. Distribution pattern of regional perfusion in prone and supine position in normal rat lungs will be used as reference data set for further studies on injured rat lungs. Wrigge 1 , J. Zinserling 1 , U. Putensen 1. PaCO2 was not different 38 6 vs 37 5. Bojic 1 , U. Holzinger 2 , F. Mallner 1 , M. Rohwer 1 , G. Heinz 3 , P. Schellongowski 1 , K. Laczika 1 , G. Locker 1. However, neither hospital stay nor days on ventilator or mortality could be positively influenced by CLRT. We performed a prospective randomized trial of the efficacy of CLRT in mechanically ventilated patients with respect to VAP prophylaxis. Patients were eligible if not suffering from pneumonia or acute lung injury but in the need for mechanical ventilation. Rotation had to be performed for at least 18 hours per day. Suctioning and change of ventilator circuits were standardized. Sedation was allowed only if clinically indicated. All patients received enteral nutrition if possible. Endpoints of the study were spontaneous breathing, death, lack of tolerance, or development of pneumonia defined as newly acquired infiltrate in two consecutive chest x-rays plus signs of inflammation plus purulent bronchial secretions. Patients suffered mostly from resuscitation after cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, neurological diseases, or COPD. Groups were comparable with respect to diagnoses and severity of disease. Development of pressure sores, duration of sedation, days on enteral feeding as well as use antibiotics was comparable. It exerts additive effects to other prophylactic measures like semirecumbent position and standardized ventilation and suctioning protocols. Lower VAP rate seems to result in shorter duration of ventilation and length of hospital stay. CLRT is not well tolerated in non-sedated patients during the weaning process. Subglottic secretion drainage SSD via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube has recently been introduced in clinical practice for prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia VAP , since it is cosidered to reduce micro-aspiration of secretions from the area around the cuff. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a tracheostomy tube with SSD versus conventional tracheostomy tube on the incidence of VAP in ICU patients. SSD was performed hourly, applying a suction of cmH2O. Clinical pulmonary infection score plus quantitative culture of protected specimen brushing were used for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The following data were recorded: Demographic data were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The incidence of pneumonia between the groups was compared by the x 2 test and outcome was compared by the Fisher test. The results of this comparative study are shown on the table below. According to the results of this study, the use of a tracheostomy tube with intermittent subglottic drainage does not reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, compared to conventional tracheostomy tube, in patients staying in the ICU longer than 7 days. Cossio 1 , J. Mora 1 , M. Badiel 2 , M. Vargas 1 , M. Gomez 1 , J. Martinez 1 , C. Salas 1 , F. Rosso 3. Ventilador Asociated Pneumonia VAP is a significant cause of in-hospital morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries. Select oral care interventions, such as topical antiseptic agents, could reduce the occurrence of VAP. Some studies have suggested the benefit of the use of Chlorhexidine CHX for oral decontamination, nevertheless this benefit has not been completely proven. Observational study. Bidirectional cohort. Patients admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU of a University affiliated Hospital who needed mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more were eligible for recruitment. VAP adjusted Incidence rates of were compared with a cohort from October thru before CHX and after the implementation from — A bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Eight hundred thirty six patients needed mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during the study period — The overall VAP incidence rate was The table shows demographic characteristics of patients. VAP incidence rate was decreased after protocol implementation This simple intervention could be beneficial in the devolping countries were VAP incidence is higher. Kumwilaisak 2 , L. Berra 2 , S. Pivi 2 , C. Crimi 2 , J. Ufberg 3 , F. Kueppers 3 , L. Bigatello 2. However, recent data suggest that horizontal orientation of the endotracheal tube ETT decreases bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract, in comparison to semi-recumbent position. You may also vote by proxy over the internet using the internet address on the BLUE proxy card or by telephone using the toll-free number on the BLUE proxy card. If your shares are held in street name, you should follow the instructions on your voting instruction form and provide specific instructions to your broker to vote as described above. Whom should I call if I have questions about the Special Meeting? The purpose of the conditional Exchange Offer as stated by Valeant is to acquire control of, and the entire equity interest in, Allergan. Valeant has also stated that it intends, as soon as practicable after the consummation of the Exchange Offer, to seek to consummate a merger of Valeant with Allergan. We believe these risks include:. When Pershing Square acquired beneficial ownership of its shares of Common Stock, it knew but did not disclose to other Allergan stockholders or those from whom it purchased such shares that Valeant was planning to announce an unsolicited proposal to acquire Allergan. Our Board believes that the numerous conditions set forth in the Exchange Offer create significant uncertainty and risk as to whether the Exchange Offer can be completed and the timing for completion. Therefore, Valeant cannot accept for exchange any shares of Common Stock tendered in the Exchange Offer until all of these conditions are satisfied. None of these conditions is satisfied as of the date of this Proxy Statement and it is uncertain whether and when these conditions will be satisfied, if at all. The opinions of Goldman Sachs and BofA Merrill Lynch are not recommendations as to whether or not any holder of shares of Common Stock should tender such shares in connection with the conditional Exchange Offer or any other matter. Free copies may be obtained by directing a request to Investor Relations, Allergan, Inc. Pearson that Allergan was not interested at that time. In February , Mr. Pearson scheduled a meeting with Mr. Pyott, but subsequently cancelled it. Pyott received an unsolicited proposal from Mr. Pearson to acquire all of the outstanding shares of our Common Stock in exchange for 0. Prior to the Initial Proposal, our Board had not received any communication from either Valeant or Pershing Square regarding the Initial Proposal or any other proposed business combination between Allergan and both Valeant and Pershing Square. The Rights Agreement was not intended to prevent an acquisition of the Company on terms that our Board considers favorable to, and in the best interests of, all Allergan stockholders. Rather, the Rights Agreement aimed to provide our Board with adequate time to fully assess and respond to any proposal. At the Annual Meeting, among other items, all of the members of our Board were re-elected, including Deborah Dunsire, M. At the meeting, our Board unanimously rejected the Initial Proposal, concluding after a comprehensive review, conducted in consultation with its financial and legal advisors, that the Initial Proposal substantially undervalued the Company, created significant risks and uncertainties for the stockholders, and was not in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. Pearson sent a letter to Mr. Pyott and our Board, revising the terms of its Initial Proposal, leaving the share consideration at 0. Pearson wrote a letter to Mr. Pyott and our Board making a re-revised proposal, leaving the share consideration at 0. At the meeting and after a comprehensive review, our Board unanimously determined, after consultation with its financial and legal advisors, that the Re-Revised Proposal substantially undervalued the Company, created significant risks and uncertainties for the stockholders of Allergan, and was not in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. Table of Contents No. Ackman and certain of their affiliates,. Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. The complaint alleges that Valeant, Pershing Square and Mr. Ackman for violations of the federal securities laws. Pershing Square has announced that it has submitted written requests representing approximately On October 9, , Allergan issued a press release in which it provided updates on Adjusted EPS and sales expectations for the third quarter of and full years , and Table of Contents On October 23, , Allergan filed an amendment to the preliminary proxy statement related to the Special Meeting. On November 3, , Allergan filed an amendment to the preliminary proxy statement related to the Special Meeting. Legal Proceedings in Connection with the Exchange Offer. Ackman for Violations of Federal Securities Laws. The foregoing description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the contents of the complaint, which is attached to the Schedule 14D-9 as Exhibit a A press release issued by Allergan announcing the filing of the lawsuit is attached to the Schedule 14D-9 as Exhibit a Allergan is seeking to enjoin PS Fund 1 from exercising any of the privileges of ownership attaching to its 9. Stockholder Class Action Suits. The complaint also sought an order directing our Board to issue a supplemental corrective disclosure regarding the amendment, among other relief. Louis filed a stockholder class action complaint in the Delaware Court of Chancery against Allergan and its directors seeking declaratory relief preventing our Board from considering constituencies other than stockholders in evaluating a takeover proposal by Pershing Square and Valeant. The complaint sought a declaratory judgment that: Stockholder Litigation. The consolidated action sought declaratory judgments that: Plaintiffs filed a motion for summary judgment, which Allergan has opposed. On the same date, PS Fund 1 filed a motion seeking to expedite the resolution of the litigation. Only your latest dated, signed proxy card will be counted, and any proxy card you sign for any reason could invalidate previous BLUE proxy cards sent by you to support our Board. If you have already submitted a proxy to Pershing Square or Valeant, you may revoke that proxy by signing, dating and mailing the enclosed BLUE proxy card. You may also vote by proxy over the internet using the internet address on the BLUE proxy card or by telephone using the toll-free number on the BLUE proxy card or, if you are a street name holder, by following the instructions on your Voting Instruction Form. Special Meeting Admission. Only Allergan stockholders may attend the Special Meeting. No cameras, recording equipment, electronic devices, large bags, briefcases or packages will be permitted in the Special Meeting. Who Can Vote, Outstanding Shares. As of the record date, there were ,, shares of our Common Stock exclusive of approximately 9,, shares of Common Stock held in treasury outstanding, each entitled to one vote. The shares of Common Stock held in our treasury will not be voted at the Special Meeting. There were approximately 4, stockholders of record as of the record date. How You Can Vote. You can vote by attending the Special Meeting and voting in person or you can vote by proxy. If you are the record holder of your stock, you can vote by proxy by submitting your proxy via the internet, by telephone or through the mail. To vote by proxy via the internet, follow the instructions on the Notice or go to the internet address stated on your proxy card. To vote by proxy by telephone, call the number on your proxy card. If you receive only the Notice, you may follow the procedures outlined in the Notice to vote by proxy via the internet or request a proxy card. As an alternative to voting by proxy by telephone or via the internet, you may vote by proxy by mail by simply marking your BLUE proxy card, signing and dating it and returning it in the postage-paid envelope provided. If you hold your shares of Common Stock through a broker, bank or other nominee, then you will receive instructions from such institution or person on how to vote your shares. Your broker, bank or other nominee will allow you to deliver your voting instructions via the internet and may also permit you to submit your voting instructions by telephone. If you properly give your proxy and submit it to us in time to vote, the individuals named as your proxy holders will vote your shares as you have directed. All shares entitled to vote and represented by properly submitted proxies including those submitted via the internet, by telephone and by mail received before the polls are closed at the Special Meeting, and not revoked or superseded, will be voted at the Special Meeting in accordance with the instructions indicated on those proxies. If no direction is indicated on a BLUE proxy card, such shares will be voted by the proxy holders named on the enclosed BLUE proxy card according to the recommendation of our Board: In their discretion, the proxy holders named in the BLUE proxy card are authorized to vote on any other matters that may properly come before the Special Meeting and at any continuation, postponement or adjournment of the Special Meeting. As of the date of this Proxy Statement, our Board is not aware of any other items of business that will be presented for consideration at the Special Meeting other than those described in this Proxy Statement. Table of Contents Voting in Person. If you plan to attend the Special Meeting and wish to vote in person, you will be given a ballot at the Special Meeting. Please note that if your shares of Common Stock are held of record by a broker, bank or other nominee, and you decide to attend and vote at the Special Meeting, your vote in person at the Special Meeting will not be effective unless you present a legal proxy, issued in your name from your broker, bank or other nominee. Even if you plan to attend the Special Meeting, we encourage you to submit your proxy to vote your shares in advance of the Special Meeting. There will be security present at the Special Meeting. As a stockholder of record, you have the power to revoke your proxy at any time before it is voted. A proxy may be revoked by a stockholder of record by:. Attendance at the Special Meeting will not, by itself, revoke a proxy. Any written notice of revocation or delivery of a subsequent proxy by a stockholder of record may be sent to Allergan, Inc. Secretary, P. Box , Irvine, California , or hand delivered to our Secretary at or before the voting at the Special Meeting. If you hold your shares of Common Stock through a broker, bank or other nominee, you may change your voting instructions by submitting new voting instructions to your broker, bank or other nominee. If you wish to vote in person, you must obtain a legal proxy issued to you by your broker, bank or other nominee. Quorum and Required Vote. The inspector of elections appointed for the Special Meeting will tabulate votes cast by proxy or in person at the Special Meeting. The inspector of elections will also determine whether a quorum is present. In order to constitute a quorum for the conduct of business at the Special Meeting, a majority of the outstanding shares of Common Stock entitled to vote at the Special Meeting must be present or represented by proxy at the Special Meeting. Shares that abstain from voting on any proposal will be treated as shares that are present and entitled to vote at the Special Meeting for purposes of determining whether a quorum is present. A broker holding shares of record for you is not entitled to vote on certain matters unless the broker receives voting instructions from you. Broker non-votes result when shares are held by a broker who has not received voting instructions from the beneficial owner, there is at least one item for which the broker has discretionary voting authority and the broker has so notified us on a proxy form in accordance with industry practice or has. Table of Contents otherwise advised us that the broker lacks voting authority. We do not believe that there will be any broker non-votes at the Special Meeting because we do not believe that any of the items on the agenda will qualify for discretionary voting treatment by a broker. Pershing Square and Valeant Proposal No. Removal of Allergan Directors. The approval of Proposal No. Termeer from our Board requires the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote generally in the election of directors of Allergan. Abstentions and broker non-votes, if any, will have the same effect as votes against this proposal. Abstentions will have the same effect as votes against the proposal. Broker non-votes, if any, will have no effect on this proposal as brokers are not entitled to vote on such proposal in the absence of voting instructions from the beneficial owner. Our Charter provides that newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors or any vacancy on our Board resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other cause shall be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors, even though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director then in office. Our Board has made no determination as of the date of this Proxy Statement with respect to what actions it will take if Proposal No. These factors may include the selection criteria and guidelines that have been established by our Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee to evaluate the qualifications of director nominees, including diversity, age, skills such as understanding of research and development, manufacturing technologies, international background, etc. Abstentions will have the same effect as votes against this proposal. Broker non-votes will have no effect on this proposal as brokers are not entitled to vote on such proposal in the absence of voting instructions from the beneficial owner. Table of Contents directors as set forth in our Bylaws, requires the affirmative vote of a majority of shares present at the Special Meeting, in person or by proxy, and entitled to vote on the proposal. Bylaws Amendment Repeal Proposal. Request for Engagement in Discussions with Valeant. Costs of Solicitation. The total cost of this solicitation will be borne by us. The Company may, from time to time, request that certain of its employees perform certain tasks in connection with the solicitation as part of his or her duties in the normal course of his or her employment without any additional compensation for the solicitation. In addition to solicitation by mail, our officers and employees may solicit proxies by telephone, by internet or in person. We will also reimburse brokers, nominees, fiduciaries and other custodians for reasonable expenses incurred by them in sending proxy soliciting materials to the beneficial owners of our Common Stock. In addition, Innisfree and certain related persons will be indemnified against certain liabilities arising out of or in connection with the engagement. Participants in the Solicitation. Except as described in this Proxy Statement, there are no agreements or understandings between the Company and any such participants relating to employment with the Company or any future transactions. Table of Contents Other than the persons described above, no general class of employee of the Company will be employed to solicit stockholders in connection with this proxy solicitation. However, in the course of their regular duties, employees may be asked to perform clerical or ministerial tasks in furtherance of this solicitation. Appraisal Rights. Our stockholders do not have appraisal rights under Delaware law in connection with this proxy solicitation. Stockholder List. A list of stockholders entitled to vote at the Special Meeting will be available for examination by any stockholder for any purpose germane to the Special Meeting during ordinary business hours at our corporate headquarters located at Dupont Drive, Irvine, California , for the ten days prior to the Special Meeting, and also at the Special Meeting. It is our policy that all proxies, ballots and voting materials that identify the particular vote of a stockholder are kept confidential, except in the following circumstances:. Pershing Square and Valeant have asked our stockholders to approve a proposal to remove six of our qualified directors that were duly elected by our stockholders at our recent Annual Meeting. Specifically, Pershing Square and Valeant have made the following proposal to be voted upon at the Special Meeting:. Our Board believes that the removal of these directors would disrupt the implementation of our strategic plan, could adversely impact the value of your investment and is not in the best interests of our stockholders. Our Board is pursuing, and continues to pursue, a number of key initiatives to increase stockholder value. We believe that our Board is much better suited to fully capitalize on these key initiatives and the value of our current long-term business plan, with each of these directors continuing to guide our Company. Since , the year in which Mr. Gallagher, the most tenured member of our Board that Pershing Square and Valeant propose to remove, was appointed to our Board, Allergan has routinely delivered compelling results, achieving compound annual increases in revenue and Adjusted EPS of approximately Each of the members of our Board that Pershing Square and Valeant are seeking to remove is important in carrying out key initiatives to increase stockholder value. In addition, each of these members possesses extensive relevant experience that is important to the functioning of our Board and our ability to increase stockholder value:. Prior to joining Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Dr. At Novartis, she helped increase the North American. From April to August , Dr. Dunsire held various positions with Sandoz Laboratories, a pharmaceutical company, in the areas of product management, scientific development and clinical research. Dunsire is a former board member of the Biotechnology Industry Organization. Dunsire is a graduate of the medical school of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Dunsire brings to our Board considerable pharmaceutical management and operations experience. Dunsire also brings to our Board valuable insights as both a clinical researcher and a physician. Dunsire should continue to serve as one of our directors. Prior to that, Mr. Our Board has concluded that, with more than three decades of experience in key leadership roles at public and private personal care and consumer products companies, including as the former Chief Executive Officer of Playtex Products, Mr. From to , Prof. Jones was a director at Wellcome plc, a major healthcare business that merged with GlaxoSmithKline plc, where he was responsible for all research and development activities. At Wellcome, Prof. Jones led the successful development of numerous pharmaceutical compounds, as well as a number of over-the-counter medicines. Jones received his bachelor of pharmacy degree and Ph. He has also gained an honorary doctorate from the University of Athens as well as honorary doctorates in science from the Universities of Strathclyde, Nottingham, Bath and Bradford in the United Kingdom. Table of Contents Commander of the British Empire. Jones is a member of the board of Arthurian Life Sciences Ltd. With over 43 years of experience in research and development, and experience in the European and global pharmaceutical industry, Prof. Jones brings to our Board valuable insights in the areas of global pharmaceutical management and operations, as well as drug development. Jones also brings to our Board in-depth government relations experience. For these reasons, our Board has concluded that Prof. Jones should continue to serve as one of our directors. Prior to these consulting activities, Mr. Prior to joining Genentech, he held various financial management positions with Pennwalt Corporation, a pharmaceutical and chemical company. Lavigne serves on the board of Accuray Incorporated, a publicly traded company specializing in the design, development and sale of the CyberKnife System, an image-guided robotic radiosurgery system used for the treatment of solid tumors, and is Chairman of the Board and serves on its Organization and Compensation Committee. He also serves on the board and Audit Committee of Depomed, Inc. Mastering the Business of Science program. Lavigne brings to our Board a wealth of management, business operations, finance and accounting and business strategy experience in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which has led our Board to conclude that Mr. Lavigne should continue to serve as one of our directors. Serving on the boards of several large public companies and as a member of the West Audit Committee Chair Networks, Mr. Lavigne also brings to our Board substantial public company corporate governance experience. Ray was Founder, Managing Director and President of Chesapeake Strategic Advisors, a firm specializing in providing advisory services to health care and life sciences companies, from April to August From June to March , Mr. Brown and Alex. During Mr. Ray is also a director of the Midwest Peregrine Society. Ray is a former director of Socios Mayores en Salud. Ray is a leading expert with extensive knowledge and experience in the banking and health care industries. He contributes to our Board over 30 years of business strategy, finance and investment banking experience for life sciences, health care services and medical device companies. For these reasons, our Board has concluded that Mr. Ray should continue to serve as one of our directors. Termeer serves on the supervisory board of ProQR Therapeutics, a Netherlands-based, publicly traded biopharmaceutical company..

Broker non-votes, if any, will have no effect on this proposal as brokers are not entitled to vote on such proposal in the absence of Premature oral creampie in0 seconds instructions from the beneficial owner. Our Charter provides that newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors or any vacancy on our Board resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other cause shall be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors, even though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director then in office.

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Our Board has made no determination as of the date of this Proxy Statement with respect to what actions it will take Premature oral creampie in0 seconds Proposal No.

These factors may include the here criteria and guidelines that have been established by our Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee to evaluate the qualifications of director nominees, including diversity, age, skills such as understanding of research and development, manufacturing technologies, international background, etc.

Abstentions will have the same effect as votes against this proposal. Broker non-votes will have no effect on this proposal as brokers are not entitled to vote on such proposal in the absence of voting instructions from the beneficial owner.

Table of Contents Premature oral creampie in0 seconds as set forth in our Bylaws, requires the affirmative vote of a majority of shares present at the Special Meeting, in person or by proxy, and entitled to vote on the proposal. Bylaws Amendment Repeal Proposal. Request for Engagement in Discussions with Valeant. Costs of Solicitation.

The total cost of this solicitation will be borne by Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. The Company may, from time to time, request that certain of its employees perform certain tasks in connection with the solicitation as part of his or her duties in the normal course of his or her employment without any additional compensation for the solicitation.

In addition to solicitation by mail, our officers and employees may solicit proxies click here telephone, by internet or in person. We will also reimburse brokers, nominees, fiduciaries and other custodians for reasonable expenses incurred by them in sending proxy soliciting materials to the beneficial owners of our Common Stock. In addition, Innisfree and certain related persons will be indemnified against certain liabilities arising out of or in connection with the engagement.

Participants in the Solicitation. Except as described in this Proxy Statement, there are no agreements or understandings between the Company and any such participants relating to employment with the Company or any future transactions.

Table of Contents Other than the persons described above, no general class of employee of the Company will be employed to solicit stockholders in connection with this proxy solicitation.

However, in the course of their regular duties, employees may be asked to perform clerical or ministerial Premature oral creampie in0 seconds in furtherance of this solicitation. Appraisal Rights. Our stockholders do not have appraisal rights under Delaware law in connection with this proxy solicitation. Stockholder List. A list of stockholders entitled Premature oral creampie in0 seconds vote at the Special Meeting will be available for examination by Premature oral creampie in0 seconds stockholder for any purpose germane to the Special Meeting during ordinary business hours at our corporate headquarters located at Dupont Drive, Irvine, Californiafor the ten days prior to the Special Meeting, and also at the Special Meeting.

It is our policy that all proxies, ballots and voting materials that identify the particular vote of a stockholder are kept confidential, except in the following circumstances:. Pershing Square and Valeant have asked our stockholders to approve a proposal to remove six of our qualified directors that were duly elected by our stockholders at our recent Annual Meeting.

Specifically, Pershing Square and Valeant have made the following proposal to be voted upon at the Special Meeting:. Our Board believes that the removal of these directors would disrupt the implementation of our strategic plan, could adversely impact the value of your investment and is not in the best interests of our stockholders.

Our Board is pursuing, and continues to pursue, a number of key initiatives to increase stockholder value. We believe that our Board is much better suited to fully capitalize on these key initiatives and the value of our current long-term business plan, with each of these directors continuing to guide our Company.

Sincethe year in which Mr. Gallagher, the most tenured member of our Board that Pershing Square and Valeant propose to remove, was appointed to our Board, Allergan has routinely delivered compelling results, achieving compound annual increases in revenue and Adjusted EPS of approximately Each of the members of our Board that Pershing Square and Valeant are seeking to remove is important in carrying out key initiatives to increase stockholder value. In addition, each of these members possesses extensive relevant experience that is important to the functioning of our Board and our ability to increase stockholder value:.

Prior to joining Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Dr. At Novartis, she helped increase the North American. From April to AugustDr. Dunsire held various positions with Sandoz Laboratories, a this web page company, in the areas of product management, scientific development and clinical research. Dunsire is a former board member of the Biotechnology Industry Organization.

Dunsire is a graduate of the medical school of the University of Premature oral creampie in0 seconds Witwatersrand, South Africa. Dunsire brings to our Board considerable pharmaceutical management and operations experience.

Dunsire also brings to our Board valuable insights as both a clinical researcher and a physician. Dunsire should continue to serve as one of our directors. Prior to that, Mr. Our Board has concluded that, with more than three decades of experience in key leadership roles at public and private personal care and consumer products companies, including as the former Chief Executive Officer of Playtex Products, Mr.

From toProf. Jones was a director at Wellcome plc, a major healthcare business that merged with GlaxoSmithKline plc, where he was responsible for all research and development activities. At Wellcome, Prof. Jones led the successful Premature oral creampie in0 seconds of numerous pharmaceutical compounds, as well as a number of over-the-counter medicines. Jones received his bachelor of pharmacy degree and Ph. He has also gained an honorary doctorate from the University of Athens as well as honorary doctorates in science from the Universities of Strathclyde, Nottingham, Bath and Bradford in the United Kingdom.

Table of Contents Commander of the British Empire. Jones is a member of the board of Arthurian Life Sciences Ltd. With over 43 years of experience in research and development, and experience in the European and global pharmaceutical industry, Prof.

Jones brings to our Board valuable insights in the areas of global pharmaceutical management and operations, as well as drug development. Jones also brings to our Board in-depth government relations experience. For these reasons, our Board has concluded that Prof.

Premature oral creampie in0 seconds should continue to serve as one of our directors. Prior to these consulting activities, Mr. Prior to joining Genentech, he held various financial management positions with Pennwalt Corporation, a pharmaceutical and chemical company. Lavigne serves on the board of Accuray Incorporated, a publicly traded company specializing in the design, development and sale of the CyberKnife System, an image-guided robotic radiosurgery system used for the treatment of solid tumors, and is Chairman of the Board and serves on its Organization and Compensation Committee.

He also serves on the board and Audit Committee of Depomed, Inc. Mastering the Business of Science program. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds brings to our Board a wealth of management, business operations, finance and accounting and business strategy experience in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which has led our Board to conclude that Mr.

Lavigne should continue to serve as one of our directors. Serving on the boards of several large public companies and as a member of the West Audit Committee Chair Networks, Mr. Lavigne also brings to our Board substantial public company corporate governance experience. Ray was Founder, Managing Director and President of Chesapeake Strategic Advisors, a firm click the following article in providing advisory services to health care and life sciences companies, from April to August From June to MarchMr.

Brown and Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. During Mr. Ray is also a director of the Midwest Peregrine Society. Ray is a former director of Socios Mayores en Salud. Ray is a leading expert with extensive knowledge and experience in the banking and health care industries.

He contributes to Premature oral creampie in0 seconds Board over 30 years of business strategy, finance and investment banking experience for life sciences, health care services and medical device companies.

For these reasons, our Board has concluded that Mr. Ray should continue to serve as one of our directors.

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Termeer serves on the supervisory board of ProQR Therapeutics, a Netherlands-based, publicly traded biopharmaceutical company. He is Chairman Emeritus of the New England Healthcare Institute, a nonprofit, applied research health policy organization he was instrumental in founding.

Termeer was a former Premature oral creampie in0 seconds of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston from to and its chairman from toand a former member of the board of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. InMr. Termeer was inducted into.

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Table of Contents the Academy of Distinguished Entrepreneurs, which was established by Babson College to recognize the economic and social contributions of business pioneers. Termeer brings to our Board over 30 years of experience in key leadership roles at Genzyme, a global biotechnology company dedicated to making a major impact on the lives of people with serious diseases. Termeer provides our Board with a wealth of expertise in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, having served as a director of several public and private healthcare companies and organizations.

Termeer should continue to serve as one of our directors. Pershing Square and Valeant have asked our stockholders to approve a proposal to request that Premature oral creampie in0 seconds Board elect or appoint six nominees selected by Pershing Square and Valeant.

Betsy S. Atkins, Cathleen P. Black, Fredric N. Eshelman, Ph. Shulman, David A. Wilson and John J. While this proposal is non-binding, if the proposal is approved, consistent with its fiduciary duties, our Board will give consideration to that result and any additional stockholder please click for source it receives.

Our Board will consider all factors it deems relevant at such time, including the selection criteria and guidelines that have been established by our Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee to evaluate the qualifications of director nominees.

However, for the reasons outlined below, our Board unanimously recommends voting against this proposal. Allergan has a remarkable record of success in terms of historic financial performance and stock price including its performance in recent quarters. As noted above, sinceAllergan has routinely delivered compelling results, achieving compound annual increases in revenue and Adjusted EPS of approximately continue reading Our current Board members also have broad knowledge of Allergan and the pharmaceutical industry gained from their years of service on our Board and in our industry.

As business strategies and Premature oral creampie in0 seconds are evaluated in the future, we believe it would be in the best interests of our stockholders for directors not associated in any way with Valeant to be entrusted with the task of comparing the conditional Exchange Offer with other options. Pursuant to our Bylaws, to the extent our directors are removed from our Board, vacancies can be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of our remaining directors then in office, even if less than a quorum.

In contrast, the members of the Allergan Board have substantial investments in Allergan. While approximately 2, of these shares are beneficially Premature oral creampie in0 seconds by David Pyott, who would not be removed from the Allergan Board if Proposal No. For the language of the proposed amendment to our Bylaws, please see Annex D Premature oral creampie in0 seconds hereto. Allergan has consistently demonstrated its commitment to allowing stockholders to be part of the corporate governance process, as evidenced by its Premature oral creampie in0 seconds to stockholder proposals in recent years, even with proposals that are not approved by a requisite number of shares of Common Stock, and remains committed to this Premature oral creampie in0 seconds.

Through our Charter and Bylaws and under Delaware law, stockholders can participate in a variety of ways. Accepting Proposal No. Our Board has not made any determination with respect to any responsive amendments, but we will continue to engage with our stockholders in order to collect feedback and consider potential responsive amendments and will promptly disclose any determinations made by the Board with click to our Bylaws.

Directors Is in Office. Given this possible protection our stockholders have under Delaware law, we believe that Proposal No. Certain protections have been developed in our Bylaws in order to prevent wasting Company time and money on immaterial, incomplete or subversive proposals or nominations. Currently, Premature oral creampie in0 seconds has a Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee that oversees the evaluation process to identify and evaluate potential new directors.

Amendment to our Bylaws to fix the Authorized Number of Directors. Pershing Square and Valeant have asked our stockholders Premature oral creampie in0 seconds approve a proposal click the authorized number of directors of our Board be fixed at nine directors.

Our Board believes the only rationale behind Proposal No. Our Board is charged with the responsibility of managing the Company. Our Board and its committees should continue to have flexibility in the size of our Board in order to assist our Board to determine what is in the best interests of Allergan and its stockholders.

Amending our Bylaws pursuant to Proposal No. Under our Charter and Bylaws and Delaware law, our Board is Premature oral creampie in0 seconds with the responsibility of managing the Company. In order to permit our Board to carry out its responsibilities and correspondingly fulfill its fiduciary duties to Allergan and its stockholders, both our Charter and Bylaws provide that our Board has the power to make, alter, amend or repeal the Bylaws.

We believe that such an automatic, blanket repeal of any Bylaw amendment adopted by our Board without stockholder approval could have the effect of repealing one or more properly adopted Bylaw amendments that our Board determined to be in the best interests of Allergan and its stockholders and adopted in furtherance of its fiduciary duties to all Allergan stockholders.

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Pershing Square and Valeant have made the following proposal to be voted upon at the Special Meeting:. Our Board will consider all factors it deems necessary, before taking any action. As previously discussed, our Board has received several unsolicited offers from Valeant relating to a potential merger with Valeant.

In order to permit our Board to carry out its responsibilities and correspondingly fulfill its fiduciary duties to Allergan and its Premature oral creampie in0 seconds, we believe our Board must Premature oral creampie in0 seconds able to decide on the actions it takes and decisions it makes on behalf of the Company and its stockholders, including rejecting offers that it determines are not in the best interests of its stockholders.

The SEC has adopted rules that link companies and intermediaries e. A single Proxy Statement will be delivered to multiple stockholders sharing an address unless contrary instructions have been received from the affected stockholders.

Stockholder Proposals for Inclusion in Proxy Statement. Stockholder Proposals for Annual Meeting. Our Charter contains an advance notice provision with respect to matters to be brought at an annual meeting of stockholders and not included in our Proxy Statement.

Pursuant Premature oral creampie in0 seconds our Charter and Bylaws, only such business shall be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders as is properly brought before the meeting. For business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, in addition to any other applicable requirements, timely notice of the matter must be first given to our Secretary.

To be timely, written notice must be Premature oral creampie in0 seconds by our Secretary not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days prior to the date of the scheduled meeting. While our Board will consider proper stockholder proposals that are properly brought before the annual meeting, we reserve the right to omit from our proxy statement stockholder proposals that we are not required to include under the Exchange Act, including Rule 14a-8 thereunder.

BoxIrvine, CA There are only limited data about the influence of posture on the pulmonary perfusion Qr in small animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify Qr in prone and supine position in terms of their imaging manifestations in healthy rats.

Qr was achieved by imaging the radioactivity distribution in the lungs.

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After first measurement animals were arranged in opposite position and the PET measurement was repeated. The 3D data were Premature oral creampie in0 seconds first manually coregistered and residual differences in the relative positioning of the lungs were corrected user independently Rover, ABX GmbH, Germany.

Masks for defining regions of interest ROI were set in the coregistered volume data for all animals. Mean normalized Qr values Qmean of the dorsal and ventral parts of the lungs were calculated on the basis of an automatic ROI-setting including threshold analysis.

Qmean was not affected by posture. The influence of posture on regional perfusion was demonstrated, for our knowledge, for the first time in rodents. Qr was significantly decreased from dorsal to ventral regions in supine infused animals. Lung structure distribution changes were minor. Distribution pattern of regional perfusion in prone and supine position in normal rat lungs will be used as reference data set for further studies on injured rat lungs. Wrigge 1Premature oral creampie in0 seconds.

Zinserling 1U. Putensen 1. PaCO2 was not different 38 6 vs 37 5. Bojic 1U. Holzinger 2F. Mallner 1M. Rohwer 1G. Heinz 3P. Schellongowski 1K. Laczika 1G. Locker 1. However, neither hospital stay nor days on ventilator or mortality could be positively influenced by CLRT. We performed a prospective randomized trial of the efficacy of CLRT in mechanically ventilated patients with respect to VAP prophylaxis.

Patients were eligible if not suffering from pneumonia or acute lung injury but in the need for click ventilation. Rotation had to be performed for at least 18 hours per day. Suctioning and change of ventilator circuits were standardized. Sedation was allowed only if clinically Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. All patients received enteral nutrition if possible. Endpoints of Premature oral creampie in0 seconds study were spontaneous breathing, death, lack of tolerance, or development of pneumonia defined as newly acquired infiltrate in two consecutive chest x-rays plus signs of inflammation plus purulent bronchial secretions.

Patients suffered mostly from resuscitation after cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, neurological diseases, or COPD. Groups Premature oral creampie in0 seconds comparable with respect to diagnoses and severity of disease. Development of pressure sores, duration of sedation, days on enteral feeding as well as use antibiotics was comparable.

It exerts additive effects to other prophylactic measures like semirecumbent position and standardized ventilation and suctioning protocols. Lower VAP rate seems to result in shorter duration of ventilation and length of hospital stay.

CLRT is not well tolerated in non-sedated patients during the weaning process. Subglottic secretion drainage SSD via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube has recently been link in clinical practice for prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia VAPsince it is cosidered to reduce micro-aspiration of secretions from the area around the cuff.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a tracheostomy tube with SSD versus conventional tracheostomy tube on the incidence of VAP in ICU patients. SSD was performed hourly, applying a suction of cmH2O. Clinical pulmonary infection score plus quantitative culture of protected specimen brushing were used for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The following data were recorded: Demographic data were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The incidence of pneumonia between the groups was compared by the x 2 test and outcome was compared by the Fisher test.

The results of this comparative study are shown on the table below. According to the results of this study, the use of a tracheostomy tube with intermittent subglottic drainage does not reduce Premature oral creampie in0 seconds incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, compared to conventional tracheostomy tube, in patients staying in the ICU longer than 7 days. Cossio 1J. Mora 1M. Badiel 2M. Vargas 1Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. Gomez 1J.

Martinez 1C. Salas 1F. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds 3. Ventilador Asociated Pneumonia VAP is a significant cause of in-hospital morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries. Select oral care interventions, such as topical antiseptic agents, could reduce the occurrence of VAP. Some studies have click the benefit of the use of Chlorhexidine CHX for oral decontamination, nevertheless this benefit has not been completely proven.

Observational study. Bidirectional cohort. Patients admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU of a University affiliated Hospital who needed mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more were eligible for recruitment.

VAP adjusted Incidence rates of were compared with a Premature oral creampie in0 seconds from October thru before CHX and after the implementation from — A click to see more and multivariate analysis were performed.

Eight hundred thirty six patients needed mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during the study period — The overall VAP incidence rate was The table shows demographic characteristics of patients. VAP incidence rate was decreased after protocol implementation This simple intervention could be beneficial in the devolping countries were VAP incidence is higher.

Kumwilaisak 2L. Berra 2S.

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Premature oral creampie in0 seconds Pivi sourceC. Crimi 2J. Ufberg 3F.

Kueppers 3L. Bigatello 2. However, recent data suggest that horizontal orientation of the endotracheal tube ETT decreases bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract, in comparison to semi-recumbent position. We designed a study to test the hypothesis that lateral, head down position, to achieve Premature oral creampie in0 seconds position of ETT, decreases aspiration of gastric contents in comparison to semi-recumbent position.

We enrolled twenty adult patients intubated from less than hour and without signs of pulmonary infection. The first 10 consecutive patients were ventilated in the semi-recumbent position SR group and the following 10 patients in the lateral, head down position LHD group.

Tracheal secretions were collected every 8 hours SR group or every 4 hours LHD group and tested for pepsin presence. Oral and gastric suctions were collected and tested for pepsin at baseline and every 12 hours. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, or T-test, as appropriate. The two groups were similar at baseline Table 1. Intubated patients ventilated in the semi-recumbent position manifest a high incidence of a marker of aspiration of gastric contents.

Lateral, head down position doesn't decrease significantly this Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. Using a combination of a N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonist NMDAa and remifentanil we attempted to use their synergistic effects in order to avoid hypnotic drug accumulation.

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We assessed the benefits of this Multimodal Short Sedation Regimen by comparing it to more conventional sedative protocols. All patients were sedated using a narcotic remifentanil 0. Titration of the sedative agents was done hourly in order to achieve a Sedation Agitation Score of 4 yawning; frown. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds were randomized into two groups G: The different groups were compared as to Midazolam and Propofol requirements Mi.

Demographic data were comparable in terms of mean Severity Acute Physiologic Score, age and gender. A to Cat. B through Cat. The Mi. A was 2—8. B2 it was 1. The Pr. C it was 0—10 in G2 and 0—3 in G1. The mean GHs was 2. The described Short Sedation Regimen is usable for medical, surgical and trauma patients.

The titration synergy concept used by combining NMDAa, remifentanil and hypnotic agents allows a dose reduction for each individual drug, thus avoiding the risk of hypnotic accumulation. As a result it decreases Go here Care stay and subsequently has longterm financial implications.

Romera, B. Valdivia, S. These phenomena greatly hinder patient management. The aim of this study is to analyse and describe the factors that could influence its onset. Prospective and descriptive study carried out in an intensive care unit ICU of a University hospital. We included ventilated patients that received midazolam to achieve the proposed sedation aims: We defined therapeutic failure as the need to administer more than 0.

All patients were treated with intravenous opiates. We analyzed demographical, clinical, and outcome data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate significant risk factors and logistic regression was used to fit the model. On univariate and multivariate analysis the associated variables were: Male gender OR 1. Ages between 45 to 65 have an OR 2.

Male gender, being younger, being mechanically ventilated for respiratory insufficiency and receiving midazolam during 5 or more days are the main risk factors leading to midazolam therapeutic failure. Barturen 3J. Borrallo 4. There is great variability in the sedo-analgesic strategies used in critically ill ventilated patients.

The aim of this study is to investigate the current sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular blockade practises in adult ICUs in Spain. Descriptive study based on an in-person survey of sixty physicians, representative of 60 ICUs. All were critical care specialists or anaesthesia specialists with direct responsibility in critical care management.

A questionnaire was Premature oral creampie in0 seconds for this study and consisted of 19 questions on different aspects of usual practises. Each specialist surveyed, anonymously, chose one of five options for each answer. Each answer represents the usual practises in their ICUs, not their personal thought. For long-term i. No ICU uses pain scales in non-communicative patients nor scales to detect delirium. Morphine, fentanyl and remifentanil are the most used analgesics in critically ill patients, but ketorolac is still employed in patients with hemorrhagic risk and meperidina in patients with severe acute Premature oral creampie in0 seconds.

There is considerable variation in clinical practises. Some of the employed strategies could produce morbidity. It is recommended that a standardised approach to analgesic, sedation and neuromuscular blockade use and assessment be developed and tested.

Valdivia, M. These phenomena greatly hinder patient management and may lead to employing excessive and toxic doses. Propofol was administered, preferably, in patients with haemodynamic stability and foreseen sedative requirements lower than 3 days, and in patients with need of frequent neurological evaluations independently of foreseen sedative time requirements. Most of the patients were also treated with intravenous opiates. On univariate analysis the associated variables were: On multivariate analysis polytraumatism as admission reason lots its statistically significance because a subordinated relationship with age under In our series being younger age under 45 is the main factor leading to propofol therapeutic failure.

Male have more risk to present it than women. Chamorro 2H. Torrado 3M. Pardo 6M. Alonso 7J. Alonso 8. To evaluate the analgesia and sedation practice and their complications in mechanically ventilated MV patients in 9 ICUs of different university hospitals in Spain. Demographic and sedo-analgesia SA procedural data was retrospectively recorded in Premature oral creampie in0 seconds mechanically ventilated patients admitted during a 30 day period in 9 Spanish ICUs 1 traumatic, Premature oral creampie in0 seconds surgical, 1 medical and 6 medical-surgical.

Premature oral creampie in0 seconds under sedation and analgesia, agents used and administration patterns were recorded. Sedative failure defined as an insufficient sedation level after 0. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS A total of patients were mechanically ventilated for a mean time of Mean age was ICU mortality was PF mean time MZ The use of other sedatives like Clonidine 1. Fifty four History of alcohol abuse and illegal or prescribed psychotropic drugs intake did not influence LOS, MV or sedation duration.

One out of four patients with MV receives sedation without analgesia. Patients with previous history of alcohol abuse are at risk of presenting sedation failure. There is a wide variability in SA utilization patterns among the different centres. Martin 2J. Bakker 3R. Economic considerations become increasingly important in the ICU due to scarce resources, medical progress and new reimbursement systems. Health economic models offer a promising tool for optimising resource allocation.

We performed a cost-consequence analysis of remifentanil-based sedation RS vs conventional sedation CS Premature oral creampie in0 seconds critically ill patients in Germany using a probabilistic Markov model. Input data for the model were obtained from UltiSAFE, a Dutch open-label trial with critically ill patients with the exception of unit costs.

In UltiSAFE patients received CS according to Dutch guidelines predominantly fentanyl or morphine combined with midazolam or propofol or RS remifentanil, combined with propofol if required for up to 10 days.

Unit costs were measured in a separate microcosting go here in a German mixed bed Premature oral creampie in0 seconds ICU using the hospital perspective and prices of Material, staff and overhead costs were considered. Similarly, it reduced the length of ICU stay from 8. From an economic perspective, RS seems to be Premature oral creampie in0 seconds preferred regimen compared to CS: The associated cost-savings more than compensated the additional drug costs of RS resulting in net-savings to Premature oral creampie in0 seconds hospital.

Oliveira 1A. Costa 1A. Meregalli 1D. Dallegrave 1E. Zignani1, F. Neto 1J. One major goal of analgesia and sedation for critically ill patients is read more provide control of pain and anxiolysis to facilitate mechanical ventilation. Fentanyl or morphine is commonly used to read article analgesia.

However, both medications can promote adverse consequences, including hypotension, prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased ICU duration of stay and high costs. Comparative trials of both opioids have not been performed in critically ill patients and the selection of an agent depends on its pharmacology, adverse effects and costs.

Many ICU physicians preferred fentanyl to morphine Premature oral creampie in0 seconds hemodynamically unstable patients due to the risk of additional hypotension.

However, both drugs accumulate and may cause similar adverse effects when continuously infused. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic effects of see more and fentanyl in hemodynamically unstable patients under mechanical ventilation.

All patients received continuous I. Mean arterial pressure MAPheart rate HRrate of opioid and of benzodiazepines, rate of catecholamine noradrenalineBPS score and adverse effects bowel distention and vomit were measured every 6 hours. The protocol was finalized with hemodynamic Premature oral creampie in0 seconds or sedative infusion interruption.

Variables were expressed in frequencies and means. A total of 29 patients were enrolled in the study; 16 were randomly assigned to the morphine group and 13 to the fentanyl group. However, noradrenaline rate was higher in the Premature oral creampie in0 seconds group 0. The mean BPS was similar in the two groups 3. These preliminary results indicate that both drugs were associated with similar adverse effects. Noradrenaline rate was higher with morphine then with fentanyl.

However, patients with morphine were sicker. We also examined whether other factors needed to be considered to ensure such changes brought long-term benefits.

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There was a need to maximize capacity by investigating methods of reducing Premature oral creampie in0 seconds and the need for NCT via efficient use of available resources. One likely method was through modifications to the ICU sedation protocol.

The original PAH sedation protocols utilized morphine and midazolam for long stay ICU patients, with propofol and alfentanil used for short stay patients. Safe Harbor Statement This release contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act ofas amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Premature oral creampie in0 seconds Act ofas amended and such forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of You are cautioned that such statements are subject to a multitude of risks and uncertainties that could cause future circumstances, events, or results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements, including the risks that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors and other risks identified in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including our Annual Report on Form K for the fiscal year ended June 30,and in other filings subsequently made by the Jane sex with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

There is no discount on postage and VAT. Developed and endorsed their health and wellbeing — giving you The extensive range offers peace of mind when you moms and babies: This range is food including fruit, meals consultant Paediatrician, and dessertscereals both Dermatologist and mix add milk and mix add Homeopath approved.

Join our Facebook page, PurityPromise, for daily updates and competitions. Each SMS is charged at R1. Entries close 30 November If you would like to receive further communication from Your Pregnancy, please register on www. Winners will be published on www. Have you and your partner had a meaningful conversation about the parenting issues that could bond you more closely — or cause stress and resentment later on? You might is when one parent-to-be anticipates abstract way. They might hear you and you parent.

If you are battling to communicate without conflict, now would be a good time to get some couples counselling, or at least a mediated discussion with a neutral third party, advises Jeanine.

There will be three people involved now, link just two. Instead of buying bigger bras for pregnancy and nursing bras after baby, wear nursing bras while pregnant. Start use newborn nappies for a week or two being financially savvy no before he outgrows them.

Get only the bare minimum of the essentials. Freeze plenty of homemade 2 Hold meals before D-day: The amniotic sac forms. Get familiar enough 17 be from paying cash for Ask for samples, with your paediatrician hospitals and doctors upfront.

At the end of each 19 can. Schools all the way from 21 in cost between a private Save big by making your pre-school to high school room and room-share. This government assisted fund it can be far cheaper than a private Socks will Premature oral creampie in0 seconds until they encourages parents to save for their hospital. Or go to a government hospital take those first steps. Consider cloth nappies — as much as 25 percent for each year of you can save R10 or saving maximum R per child.

Buying one is ready. Trouble breastfeeding? Most government clinics will have a sister who knows a thing or two about breastfeeding, while maternity state hospitals usually have lactation consultants on staff. These visits can cost R or more a time at private well-baby clinics.

Simply download and enjoy! He could measure about 1. Blood is flowing from one side of the heart to the other, Premature oral creampie in0 seconds the lungs.

N othing is more frightening some mild cramping. In most cases the cause source when you are pregnant.

Yet research has shown the entire lining of the uterus the chromosomal problems Premature oral creampie in0 seconds that one in five pregnant women will endometrium comes away as the body with the early development of the bleed during the first trimester. Implantation bleeding is usually cervix, as well as some drugs and but actually a pregnancy is only secure light and scanty and may last one or Rhesus incompatibility. Bleeding or spotting, if associated with lining of the uterus.

Because implantation bleeding occurs cramping, fever or chills and pain that In order for a blastocyst the result at about the same time that your period comes and goes and is felt in the small of of the union of the sperm and the egg may start, many women think this is a the back radiating to the lower abdomen to survive and grow into an embryo, small, light period and are surprised to with loss of bloody tissue, is cause it needs to Premature oral creampie in0 seconds a place in the wall of find out that they are indeed pregnant — for concern.

Between five to and further along than they thought. If you suspect that you may be having Premature oral creampie in0 seconds days after ovulation the level Once the next period does not a miscarriage, or you are unsure why of the hormone progesterone is at its occur, and you know you are indeed you are bleeding, contact your doctor or highest, and this stimulates the growth pregnant, your doctor may have to use midwife immediately or go to be checked of the blood vessels that Premature oral creampie in0 seconds the other methods to date your pregnancy, at the hospital where you are planning to endometrium, which is the lining of the especially Premature oral creampie in0 seconds you are likely to be unsure have your baby.

It is always a good idea to check out any a pregnancy does not occur. This is then Also at this stage you have had no other bleeding at any stage of your pregnancy, recognised as your period.

Your breasts have not if only for reassurance. YP When attachment of the blastocyst does started to enlarge and there are no outer take place in the lining of the womb, it is visible signs that you are pregnant.

The phase, due to the changes in hormones. Another huge consideration Premature oral creampie in0 seconds a blastocyst attaches itself by burrowing pregnant woman is ectopic pregnancy. This occurs when the pregnancy grows women will experience a bit of spotting Implantation bleeding has no ill effects in the fallopian tube instead of the that is known as implantation bleeding.

Ectopic pregnancies occur in It occurs because the tiny blood vessels in twelve weeks can make you worry about one out of every 60 pregnancies, and the endometrium become disturbed at the the wellbeing of your baby and the can be life-threatening to the mother.

Serious pain and internal bleeding can a small amount of blood dribbles down Premature oral creampie in0 seconds all women think about the occur with ectopic pregnancies, so it through the cervix. This is normal and no possibility of a miscarriage during needs to be checked out.

From crown to rump, your baby WHAT grows from about 2. U ntil fairly Premature oral creampie in0 seconds, and medical scientist at Genesis Genetics a girl or a boy — and its accuracy is 97 to parents who wanted or South Africa.

This discovery offered 99 percent. We normally have years ago in selected centres only, it is your risk of miscarriage.

You really had to two copies of every chromosome, with 46 now available across South Africa, and have a persuasive reason if you wanted to chromosomes in 23 pairs in total.

Jogo porno Watch Fresno state college sluts Video Sexy pictire. The rights offering will be made only by means of a prospectus meeting the requirements of the Securities Act of , as amended. The Company's vision is to be the world's preferred proprietary seed company which supplies a range of forage and specialty crop products that supports the growing global demand for animal proteins and healthier consumer diets. Using the last 3 years of PICU adverse event database and a Pharmacy intervention audit June we identified high alert drugs. Assessed whether awareness of events and interventions are reducing incidents. Top 5 groups of drugs identified requiring intervention: Prophylactic Cardiac antibiotics, sedation and analgesia, Potassium chloride, dinoprostone and inotropes, and heparin. Interventions identified as effective: Each change in guidelines has been backed up with notification and training by our education team. All events involving nursing staff are flagged to our nurse education team so that individual training needs can be met, and any general training issues identified. To increase awareness of adverse incidents we also use simulation training. This has helped improve recognition of events and awareness of methods to minimise effects. Adverse incidents are now discussed at medical, nursing and AHP new staff induction and at annual mandatory training. Simplifying drug guidelines and increasing their availability appear to have helped reduce adverse drug events on PICU. Increasing awareness through multidisciplinary adverse events team responsible for investigation and feedback and education and training are also significant factors. Kasmi, G. Kasmi, S. Sallabanda, E. Kola, I. Lluka, F. Zavalani, K. Marku, G. Sallabanda, A. Nosocomial infections are important causes of mortality morbidity and prolonged hospital stay in PICU. CDC criteria were used as standard definitions for NI. Data including extrinsic risk factors invasive devices associated with NI were recorded. During the study period were admitted patients — no surgical and 79 surgical patients with mean age of The incidence rate of NI during the study period was Urinary tract infections the respiratory tract infections blood stream infections were the most encountered with a rate of 4 per cent 3 per cent 1. The etiologic profile was as follow — gram negative The length of hospital stay in infected patients was longer than in no infected patients This study highlights the importance of NI surveillance and the necessity to evaluate preventive measures and design control guidelines which could reduce their consequences. Open endotracheal suctioning may lead to alveolar decrecruitment 1 , which can be monitored by means of functional residual capacity FRC measurements 2. We hypothesized that a recruitment strategy based on FRC measurements would improve oxygenation after an open endotracheal suctioning manoeuvre. We studied 65 postoperative mechanically ventilated cardiac surgery patients. All patients received an open suctioning procedure 20 sec, 14 F catheter, mmHg negative pressure. Prospectively patients were stratified into two groups by the post suctioning FRC value A: A FRC guided alveolar recruitment strategy after open endotracheal suctioning restored reduced FRC and showed short term improvements of oxygenation in patients after cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, a recent clinical trial failed to show any protective effect derived from the use of high compared to moderate PEEP levels. We studied ventilated patients fulfilling criteria for ARDS, who underwent a protocol including 4 ventilatory modes: All patients were sedated and paralyzed, connected to a pneumotach Hans Rudolph, Inc. After having a thorax CTscan, a transverse region 2 cm over the diaphragm was chosen and cine-CTs of 8 seconds at this fix transverse region were performed at each ventilator mode LightSpeed VCT, GE; image reconstruction at 0,25sec images, 0. These data are consistent with results observed in large clinical trials on protective strategies. Carvalho 1 , P. Pelosi 2 , A. Barrenengoa 1 , T. Koch 1 , M. Gama de Abreu 1. Ten pigs 30— After stabilization, a recruitment maneuver was performed 50 cmH2O, 40 s. At each step, arterial and mixed venous blood samples were obtained and cardiac output CO was measured. In six animals CT-Group , whole lung helical CT-scans 1 mm thickness were obtained at each step during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses. Airway pressure and flow signals were recorded and elastance of the respiratory system Ers , resistance Rrs and PEEP continuously computed by the least squares method. The best PEEP was then assessed considering four definitions: Results are presented as median and inter-quartiles. Comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon's test and adjusted with the Bonferroni-Holm procedure. The stepwise reduction of PEEP resulted in an increase of cardiac output and arterial blood pressure, as well as a reduction of total lung volume TLV and volume of intrapulmonary gas. This criterion could be useful to achieve improved pulmonary function and aeration simultaneously. Bergmann 2 , M. Ragaller 1 , I. Pietzsch 2. There are only limited data about the influence of posture on the pulmonary perfusion Qr in small animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify Qr in prone and supine position in terms of their imaging manifestations in healthy rats. Qr was achieved by imaging the radioactivity distribution in the lungs. After first measurement animals were arranged in opposite position and the PET measurement was repeated. The 3D data were at first manually coregistered and residual differences in the relative positioning of the lungs were corrected user independently Rover, ABX GmbH, Germany. Masks for defining regions of interest ROI were set in the coregistered volume data for all animals. Mean normalized Qr values Qmean of the dorsal and ventral parts of the lungs were calculated on the basis of an automatic ROI-setting including threshold analysis. Qmean was not affected by posture. The influence of posture on regional perfusion was demonstrated, for our knowledge, for the first time in rodents. Qr was significantly decreased from dorsal to ventral regions in supine infused animals. Lung structure distribution changes were minor. Distribution pattern of regional perfusion in prone and supine position in normal rat lungs will be used as reference data set for further studies on injured rat lungs. Wrigge 1 , J. Zinserling 1 , U. Putensen 1. PaCO2 was not different 38 6 vs 37 5. Bojic 1 , U. Holzinger 2 , F. Mallner 1 , M. Rohwer 1 , G. Heinz 3 , P. Schellongowski 1 , K. Laczika 1 , G. Locker 1. However, neither hospital stay nor days on ventilator or mortality could be positively influenced by CLRT. We performed a prospective randomized trial of the efficacy of CLRT in mechanically ventilated patients with respect to VAP prophylaxis. Patients were eligible if not suffering from pneumonia or acute lung injury but in the need for mechanical ventilation. Rotation had to be performed for at least 18 hours per day. Suctioning and change of ventilator circuits were standardized. Sedation was allowed only if clinically indicated. All patients received enteral nutrition if possible. Endpoints of the study were spontaneous breathing, death, lack of tolerance, or development of pneumonia defined as newly acquired infiltrate in two consecutive chest x-rays plus signs of inflammation plus purulent bronchial secretions. Patients suffered mostly from resuscitation after cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, neurological diseases, or COPD. Groups were comparable with respect to diagnoses and severity of disease. Development of pressure sores, duration of sedation, days on enteral feeding as well as use antibiotics was comparable. It exerts additive effects to other prophylactic measures like semirecumbent position and standardized ventilation and suctioning protocols. Lower VAP rate seems to result in shorter duration of ventilation and length of hospital stay. CLRT is not well tolerated in non-sedated patients during the weaning process. Subglottic secretion drainage SSD via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube has recently been introduced in clinical practice for prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia VAP , since it is cosidered to reduce micro-aspiration of secretions from the area around the cuff. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a tracheostomy tube with SSD versus conventional tracheostomy tube on the incidence of VAP in ICU patients. SSD was performed hourly, applying a suction of cmH2O. Clinical pulmonary infection score plus quantitative culture of protected specimen brushing were used for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The following data were recorded: Demographic data were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The incidence of pneumonia between the groups was compared by the x 2 test and outcome was compared by the Fisher test. The results of this comparative study are shown on the table below. According to the results of this study, the use of a tracheostomy tube with intermittent subglottic drainage does not reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, compared to conventional tracheostomy tube, in patients staying in the ICU longer than 7 days. Cossio 1 , J. Mora 1 , M. Badiel 2 , M. Vargas 1 , M. Gomez 1 , J. Martinez 1 , C. Salas 1 , F. Rosso 3. Ventilador Asociated Pneumonia VAP is a significant cause of in-hospital morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries. Select oral care interventions, such as topical antiseptic agents, could reduce the occurrence of VAP. Some studies have suggested the benefit of the use of Chlorhexidine CHX for oral decontamination, nevertheless this benefit has not been completely proven. Observational study. Bidirectional cohort. Patients admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU of a University affiliated Hospital who needed mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more were eligible for recruitment. VAP adjusted Incidence rates of were compared with a cohort from October thru before CHX and after the implementation from — A bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Eight hundred thirty six patients needed mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during the study period — The overall VAP incidence rate was The table shows demographic characteristics of patients. VAP incidence rate was decreased after protocol implementation This simple intervention could be beneficial in the devolping countries were VAP incidence is higher. Kumwilaisak 2 , L. Berra 2 , S. Pivi 2 , C. Crimi 2 , J. Ufberg 3 , F. Kueppers 3 , L. Bigatello 2. However, recent data suggest that horizontal orientation of the endotracheal tube ETT decreases bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract, in comparison to semi-recumbent position. We designed a study to test the hypothesis that lateral, head down position, to achieve horizontal position of ETT, decreases aspiration of gastric contents in comparison to semi-recumbent position. We enrolled twenty adult patients intubated from less than hour and without signs of pulmonary infection. The first 10 consecutive patients were ventilated in the semi-recumbent position SR group and the following 10 patients in the lateral, head down position LHD group. Tracheal secretions were collected every 8 hours SR group or every 4 hours LHD group and tested for pepsin presence. Oral and gastric suctions were collected and tested for pepsin at baseline and every 12 hours. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, or T-test, as appropriate. The two groups were similar at baseline Table 1. Intubated patients ventilated in the semi-recumbent position manifest a high incidence of a marker of aspiration of gastric contents. Lateral, head down position doesn't decrease significantly this phenomenon. Using a combination of a N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonist NMDAa and remifentanil we attempted to use their synergistic effects in order to avoid hypnotic drug accumulation. We assessed the benefits of this Multimodal Short Sedation Regimen by comparing it to more conventional sedative protocols. All patients were sedated using a narcotic remifentanil 0. Titration of the sedative agents was done hourly in order to achieve a Sedation Agitation Score of 4 yawning; frown. Patients were randomized into two groups G: The different groups were compared as to Midazolam and Propofol requirements Mi. Demographic data were comparable in terms of mean Severity Acute Physiologic Score, age and gender. A to Cat. B through Cat. The Mi. A was 2—8. B2 it was 1. The Pr. C it was 0—10 in G2 and 0—3 in G1. The mean GHs was 2. The described Short Sedation Regimen is usable for medical, surgical and trauma patients. The titration synergy concept used by combining NMDAa, remifentanil and hypnotic agents allows a dose reduction for each individual drug, thus avoiding the risk of hypnotic accumulation. As a result it decreases Intensive Care stay and subsequently has longterm financial implications. Romera, B. Valdivia, S. These phenomena greatly hinder patient management. The aim of this study is to analyse and describe the factors that could influence its onset. Prospective and descriptive study carried out in an intensive care unit ICU of a University hospital. We included ventilated patients that received midazolam to achieve the proposed sedation aims: We defined therapeutic failure as the need to administer more than 0. All patients were treated with intravenous opiates. We analyzed demographical, clinical, and outcome data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate significant risk factors and logistic regression was used to fit the model. On univariate and multivariate analysis the associated variables were: Male gender OR 1. Ages between 45 to 65 have an OR 2. Male gender, being younger, being mechanically ventilated for respiratory insufficiency and receiving midazolam during 5 or more days are the main risk factors leading to midazolam therapeutic failure. Barturen 3 , J. Borrallo 4. There is great variability in the sedo-analgesic strategies used in critically ill ventilated patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the current sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular blockade practises in adult ICUs in Spain. Descriptive study based on an in-person survey of sixty physicians, representative of 60 ICUs. All were critical care specialists or anaesthesia specialists with direct responsibility in critical care management. A questionnaire was developed for this study and consisted of 19 questions on different aspects of usual practises. Each specialist surveyed, anonymously, chose one of five options for each answer. Each answer represents the usual practises in their ICUs, not their personal thought. For long-term i. No ICU uses pain scales in non-communicative patients nor scales to detect delirium. Morphine, fentanyl and remifentanil are the most used analgesics in critically ill patients, but ketorolac is still employed in patients with hemorrhagic risk and meperidina in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. There is considerable variation in clinical practises. Some of the employed strategies could produce morbidity. It is recommended that a standardised approach to analgesic, sedation and neuromuscular blockade use and assessment be developed and tested. Valdivia, M. These phenomena greatly hinder patient management and may lead to employing excessive and toxic doses. Propofol was administered, preferably, in patients with haemodynamic stability and foreseen sedative requirements lower than 3 days, and in patients with need of frequent neurological evaluations independently of foreseen sedative time requirements. Most of the patients were also treated with intravenous opiates. On univariate analysis the associated variables were: On multivariate analysis polytraumatism as admission reason lots its statistically significance because a subordinated relationship with age under In our series being younger age under 45 is the main factor leading to propofol therapeutic failure. Male have more risk to present it than women. Chamorro 2 , H. Torrado 3 , M. Our Board and its committees should continue to have flexibility in the size of our Board in order to assist our Board to determine what is in the best interests of Allergan and its stockholders. Amending our Bylaws pursuant to Proposal No. Under our Charter and Bylaws and Delaware law, our Board is charged with the responsibility of managing the Company. In order to permit our Board to carry out its responsibilities and correspondingly fulfill its fiduciary duties to Allergan and its stockholders, both our Charter and Bylaws provide that our Board has the power to make, alter, amend or repeal the Bylaws. We believe that such an automatic, blanket repeal of any Bylaw amendment adopted by our Board without stockholder approval could have the effect of repealing one or more properly adopted Bylaw amendments that our Board determined to be in the best interests of Allergan and its stockholders and adopted in furtherance of its fiduciary duties to all Allergan stockholders. Pershing Square and Valeant have made the following proposal to be voted upon at the Special Meeting:. Our Board will consider all factors it deems necessary, before taking any action. As previously discussed, our Board has received several unsolicited offers from Valeant relating to a potential merger with Valeant. In order to permit our Board to carry out its responsibilities and correspondingly fulfill its fiduciary duties to Allergan and its stockholders, we believe our Board must be able to decide on the actions it takes and decisions it makes on behalf of the Company and its stockholders, including rejecting offers that it determines are not in the best interests of its stockholders. The SEC has adopted rules that permit companies and intermediaries e. A single Proxy Statement will be delivered to multiple stockholders sharing an address unless contrary instructions have been received from the affected stockholders. Stockholder Proposals for Inclusion in Proxy Statement. Stockholder Proposals for Annual Meeting. Our Charter contains an advance notice provision with respect to matters to be brought at an annual meeting of stockholders and not included in our Proxy Statement. Pursuant to our Charter and Bylaws, only such business shall be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders as is properly brought before the meeting. For business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, in addition to any other applicable requirements, timely notice of the matter must be first given to our Secretary. To be timely, written notice must be received by our Secretary not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days prior to the date of the scheduled meeting. While our Board will consider proper stockholder proposals that are properly brought before the annual meeting, we reserve the right to omit from our proxy statement stockholder proposals that we are not required to include under the Exchange Act, including Rule 14a-8 thereunder. Box , Irvine, CA Submissions satisfying the required qualifications will be forwarded to the chairperson of the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee or such other member of the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee delegated to review and consider candidates for director nominees. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date they were first issued and are based on current expectations as well as the beliefs and assumptions of management. Allergan expressly disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements except as required by law. You also may obtain free copies of the documents we file with the SEC by going to http: If you have any questions or need any assistance in revoking your proxy you may have given to Pershing Square, please contact our agent:. New York, NY Stockholders call toll-free: Banks and Brokers call collect: Board of Directors. Michael R. Deborah Dunsire, M. Trevor M. Louis J. Timothy D. Russell T. Henri A. Pyott also served as our President from January until February , and again from March until June Allergan is currently the fastest growing and second largest global ophthalmic pharmaceutical company and holds leadership positions in other specialty areas including neurosciences, medical aesthetics and medical dermatology. In addition to internally driven innovation, Allergan acquired Inamed Corp. Before joining Allergan, Mr. Pyott served as the Head of the Novartis Nutrition Division and as a member of the Executive Committee of the Switzerland-based Novartis AG, working over 17 years in several positions in strategic planning, marketing and general management in five countries around the world. Pyott is also the lead independent director of the board of Avery Dennison Corporation, a publicly traded company focused on pressure-sensitive technology and self-adhesive solutions, where he serves as Chairman of its Compensation and Executive Personnel Committee and as a member of its Governance and Social Responsibility Committee, and a member of the board of directors of Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, a publicly traded company focused on products and technologies to treat advanced cardiovascular diseases, where he serves on its Audit and Public Policy Committee. Table of Contents Mr. For these reasons, and given Mr. Pyott should serve as one of our directors. McDonnell has also served as the Chief Medical Editor of Ophthalmology Times since , and has served on the editorial boards of numerous ophthalmology journals. In , Dr. McDonnell was named the Irving H. McDonnell is the recipient of research grants from the National Eye Institute, Research to Prevent Blindness, and other funding agencies. The American Academy of Ophthalmology honored Dr. Our Board has concluded that Dr. McDonnell should serve as one of our directors because he provides our Board with wide-ranging expertise in ophthalmology and is widely recognized as an international leader in corneal transplantation, laser refractive surgery and the treatment of dry eye. Prior to joining Diageo, Mr. From to , Mr. Proctor is a member of the several notable legal associations, including the American Bar Association, Association of Corporate Counsel and the International Bar Association. Proctor was appointed to our Board in February and is a member of the Audit and Finance Committee and the Organization and Compensation Committee. Proctor brings to our Board a depth of international expertise and is a well-respected leader in the area of international law. Our Board has concluded that, with more than 35 years of domestic and international corporate legal experience, Mr. Proctor should serve as one of our directors. Executive Officers. Principal Positions with Allergan. Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer. Principal Executive Officer. Douglas S. James F. Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller. Principal Accounting Officer. Raymond H. Julian S. James M. Chief Financial Officer. Principal Financial Officer. Arnold A. Scott D. Scott M. Whitcup, M. Chief Scientific Officer. Officers are appointed by and hold office at the pleasure of our Board. Prior to assuming his current role, Mr. Prior to joining Allergan, Mr. Ingram received his Juris Doctorate from the University of Arizona in , graduating summa cum laude and Order of the Coif. Prior to Wynn Oil Company, Mr. From to Mr. Barlow worked for the accounting firm Deloitte Haskins and Sells. From April to February , Mr. Diradoorian served as Senior Vice President, Global. Table of Contents Technical Operations. From February to April , Mr. Diradoorian joined Allergan in July Gangolli served as Senior Vice President, U. Eye Care from July to January Gangolli began his career in pharmaceutical sales and marketing with Ortho-Cilag Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. Hindman also serves as President of The Allergan Foundation. Hindman worked at Deloitte, Haskins and Sells. While at Beckman Coulter, Mr. Prior to joining Beckman Coulter, Mr. Pinkston held various positions at Eli Lilly and Company from through , including serving as deputy general counsel responsible for the legal affairs of Lilly USA. Sherman joined Allergan as Executive Vice President, Human Resources in September with more than fifteen years of human resources leadership experience. Sherman worked at Medtronic, Inc. From April until September , Mr. Prior to these assignments, Mr. Prior to joining Medtronic, Mr. Sherman held various positions in the Human Resources and Sales organizations at Exxon Corporation from to Table of Contents Dr. Prior to that, Dr. In January , Dr. From until , Dr. As Clinical Director, Dr. Prior to its sale to Mallinckrodt plc in , Dr. Whitcup served on the board of directors of Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Whitcup also serves on the board of directors of Semnur Pharmaceuticals, a privately held company. He completed residency training in internal medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles and in ophthalmology at Harvard University, as well as fellowship training in uveitis and ocular immunology at the National Institutes of Health. Corporate Governance. Stockholder Responsiveness. At the Annual Meeting, a majority of stockholders representing a majority of shares present and entitled to vote approved a non-binding stockholder proposal requesting that our Board adopt a policy, and amend our governing documents, to require the Chairman of the Board to be an independent director. While this proposal was not approved by a majority of shares outstanding, in advance of the annual meeting of stockholders, our Board intends to engage with our significant stockholders to seek input regarding the potential adoption of appropriate responsive actions. In addition, our Board has received preliminary feedback from our stockholders regarding the adoption of amendments to our Charter and our Bylaws to permit stockholders to act by written consent, which was approved by our stockholders at the Annual meeting. Also in advance of the annual meeting of stockholders, our Board intends to engage with our significant stockholders to consider potential amendments to the stockholder right to act by written consent. Director Independence. The NYSE Listed Company Manual and corresponding listing standards provide that, in order to be considered independent, our Board must determine that a director has no material relationship with us other than as a director. Based on its review, our Board has affirmatively determined that none of Drs. Dunsire or McDonnell, Messrs. Pyott was determined to not be independent based on his service as our President and Chief Executive Officer. None of the members of these committees is an officer, employee or former employee of us or any of our subsidiaries. Board Meetings. Our business and affairs are managed under the direction of our Board. Executive Sessions. Our independent directors meet regularly in executive sessions without management. If not present, a different independent director is selected by the independent directors to chair the executive session. Our Board has appointed Mr. Gallagher to serve as our lead independent director. Executive sessions of our independent directors are typically held in conjunction with each regularly scheduled board meeting; however, our lead independent director possesses the authority to call a meeting of our independent directors that is not in conjunction with a regularly scheduled board meeting. Board Committees. Audit and Finance Committee. The Audit and Finance Committee is composed of Mr. Ray chairperson , Messrs. Lavigne and Proctor and Ms. Our Board has determined that Messrs. Pursuant to the charter adopted for the Audit and Finance Committee, the primary role of the Audit and Finance Committee is to assist our Board in its oversight of our financial reporting process. Our management is responsible for the preparation, presentation and integrity of our financial statements, and for maintaining appropriate accounting and financial reporting principles and policies and internal controls and procedures designed to assure compliance with accounting standards and applicable laws and regulations. Our independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing our financial statements and expressing an opinion as to their conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as well as auditing our internal controls over financial reporting and expressing an opinion as to their effectiveness. The Audit and Finance Committee:. Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee. Termeer chairperson , Mr. Gallagher, Dr. McDonnell and Prof. The Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee:. The Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee is responsible for recommending qualified candidates for election as directors, including the slate of directors that our Board proposes for election by our stockholders at the annual meeting. In identifying, evaluating and selecting potential director nominees, including nominees recommended by our stockholders, the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee generally engages in the following selection process:. The Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee considers all of the qualities mentioned above when considering a candidate for director, without regard to whether such candidate was nominated by the Chairman of the Board, another director or a stockholder. Stockholders can suggest qualified candidates for director by submitting to us any recommendations for director candidates or nominate a director in accordance with our Charter and our Bylaws. Submissions that meet the criteria outlined above will be forwarded to the chairperson of the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee or such other member of the Corporate Governance and Compliance Committee delegated to review and consider candidates for director nominees. Organization and Compensation Committee. Gallagher chairperson , Proctor, Ray and Termeer. The Compensation Committee:. The Compensation Committee works with an external compensation consultant to assist the Compensation Committee in its duties. Frederick W. The compensation consultant performs no work for us other than its work providing executive compensation consulting services to the Compensation Committee and reports directly to the Compensation Committee through its chairperson. For , the compensation consultant provided the Compensation Committee with:. Jones chairperson , Drs. Dunsire and McDonnell and Mr. Table of Contents Board Leadership Structure. Our Board has carefully considered our Board leadership structure and determined that it is in the best interests of the Company and our stockholders to have our Chief Executive Officer lead our Board as Chairman, together with a lead independent director. Our Board believes our leadership structure, with its emphasis on board independence together with strong board and committee involvement, provides sound and robust oversight of management. Board Independence. In determining the most appropriate board leadership structure for the Company, our Board closely considered our current system for ensuring significant independent oversight of management, including the following, effective immediately prior to the annual meeting:. Among other responsibilities, Mr. Benefits of a Combined Leadership Structure. Our governing documents permit the roles of the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman to be filled by the same or different individuals. In determining that we are best served by having Mr. Pyott is best situated to act as a bridge between management and our Board by promoting communication and coordinating the strategic objectives of both groups. Our Board believes that having Mr. Board Risk Oversight. Our Board oversees an enterprise-wide approach to risk management that is designed to support the achievement of organizational objectives, including strategic objectives, to improve long-term organizational performance and enhance stockholder value. A fundamental part of risk management is not only understanding the risks a company faces and what steps management is taking to manage those risks, but also understanding what level of risk is appropriate for us. In setting our business strategy, our Board assesses the various risks being mitigated by management and determines what constitutes an appropriate level of risk for us. Our Board meets with management at least quarterly to receive updates with respect to our operations, business strategies and the monitoring of related risks. While our Board has the ultimate oversight responsibility for the risk management process, various committees of our Board also have responsibility for risk management. The Audit and Finance Committee oversees our financial risk exposures, including monitoring the integrity of our financial statements, financial reporting process and systems of internal controls, accounting and legal compliance and the independence and qualifications of our independent registered public accounting firm. The Audit and Finance Committee receives an annual risk and internal controls assessment report from our internal audit department. Tissue samples were stained with calcofluor white and biebrich scarlet fluorescent stains. Infections were found to develop in small clusters in a few of the epithelial cells at 8 DAI. By 10 and 12 DAI, the infection had spread throughout most of the midgut, including the cells bordering the basement membrane. Cropping production and tillage systems lead to loss of soil organic matter SOM , lowering soil pH, and soil compaction in Kentucky. However, the magnitude of the changes varied among the soil properties. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the changes of SOM, soil pH, and soil compaction under different cropping systems like corn-soybean-tobacco rotation Field 1 , continuous corn field Field 2 , hemp field Field 3 , wheat field Field 4 , pasture with animal grazing Field 5 , and canola field Field 6. The prominent soil textures in all fields are silt loam and silt clay loam. Disturbed soil samples were taken at the depth of cm and cm to measure SOM and soil pH. There were three replications from each field. The results indicated that the canola field which has been under no till for over fifteen years had the highest SOM at an average of 4. At similar depth, continuous cornfield had the second lowest amounts of SOM which was 2. The canola field and the continuous cornfield had soil pH of 6. The averages of soil compaction from all fields were psi in cm, and psi in cm. The highest compaction was found in the field under animal grazing at psi the lowest was under tobacco at The findings from this study revealed that SOM, soil pH, and soil compaction changed as affected by cropping practices. Pawpaw Asimina triloba is a tree fruit native to the eastern United States and is a niche crop for local markets. Fruit drop is a natural mechanism by which the tree reduces crop load in fruit crops. Fruit drop right after flowering is known as 'First drop' whereas fruit drop during June is called 'June drop'. Although adequate fruit thinning is necessary to produce large quality fruits, excess thinning reduces the yield. Fungicides are used to control fruit diseases, but their effects on fruit drop has not been examined in pawpaw. This study aimed to determine whether the application of sulfur and copper fungicides affected June drop of 'Sunflower' and 'Susquehanna' varieties of pawpaw. Eight trees per variety and ten random fruit clusters per tree were selected for treatment. The fruit clusters were treated with two levels of each fungicide sulfur: Treatments were applied at day intervals until harvest. Fruit numbers in each treatment cluster were recorded the first week of June and at the time of harvesting in late August. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and mean treatment differences using Costat statistical software. Final results will be discussed. Variation in annonaceous acetogenins activity in twig tissues of pawpaw varieties and new advanced selections using the brine shrimp test assay. Pawpaw [Asimina triloba L. Dunal], a tree fruit native to eastern North America, contains annonaceous acetogenins in the fruit and vegetative tissues that display pesticidal and anti-tumor activities. Previous studies have identified asimicin, bullatacin, bullatalicin, and 40 other bioactive acetogenins in the crude extracts of twigs, unripe fruit, seeds, root, bark, and ripe fruit of pawpaw. The brine shrimp test BST is a useful tool in observing the biological activities of bioactive chemicals in plant extracts. In this study, we aimed to determine the variation in annonaceous acetogenin activity in twig tissues of different pawpaw varieties and new advanced selections Hi , Hi , Sunflower, and Susquehanna. Pawpaw twigs were collected from trees of pawpaw varieties and advanced selections at KSU Research and Demonstration Farm. Dried twig tissues 2. Concentrated extract from twigs was transferred to vials to create concentrations of 0, 1. BST was used to determine the mortality rate for twig tissues and used to calculate an LC50 for each pawpaw genotype. Study results will be discussed. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are of interest to Kentucky growers because they can be grown organically and are able to produce a locally produced, niche-market crop from July until October. This provides an extended season for fruit sales at farmers' markets, community supported agriculture programs, and organic markets. Plants were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 3 blocks, including 5 plants of each cultivar per block for a total of 15 plants of each cultivar in a 3 meter plot. Spacing was 0. Rows were spaced 4 meters apart. This trial was planted on certified organic land and managed with organic practices following the National Organic Program standards. Weed control was achieved by mechanical cultivation and hand weeding. Plants were irrigated weekly with t-tape laid in the rows. Primocane fruit production began in the second week of August for both selections. In previous years, both selections had similar fruit sizes and yields. Continued observation is needed to determine overall trends. Anthropology and Sociology - Poster Presentations. My ethnographic project explores work life, expressions of hegemonic masculinity, identity, and the role of homosocial intimacy in the context of Ohio River barge deckhands. The barge work environment is defined by isolation and day work periods where crewmen live in tight proximity. Deckhands frequently express a binary mindset toward their identity in which they maintain both an on-shore identity and a river persona. On a local scale, this work seeks to shed light on river labor and the men who perform it. Barge crews have a unique, yet little studied culture in which hegemonic masculinity is a central component. In a larger context, this research aims to provide insight into the effects participation in hegemonic gender expression can have on work life. I report on this excavation which revealed rich archaeological potential for understanding the lives of prehistoric peoples of this area. Artifacts found at the Glacken site during the field school include lithic tools, animal bones, and freshwater shell. The Parker Academy had a longstanding history of being a home for the abolitionist movement. Founded in , the Parker family of New Richmond, Ohio created the first all-inclusive academy that provided education to students regardless of race, gender, political identity, or religious affiliation. Students from across the country attended the Academy. The multidisciplinary approach the Parkers used to facilitate inclusion aimed to establish an all-encompassing educational environment, which was not only fascinating, but uniquely ahead of its time. By closely networking with educators, artists, students, religious leaders, politicians, lobbyists and freedom fighters, the Parkers established a school of inclusiveness far exceeding the standard of the mid to late 's. Spanning the ranges of scientific study from anthropology, archaeology, history and public history, to local historians and educators; researchers have been able to piece together groundbreaking discoveries of the underground abolitionist movement throughout the Ohio River Valley. Investigating the Parker Academy connections and networks through anthropological methods has allowed for new depths in the study of the abolitionist network to be reached. Through researchers' efforts in applying the same multidisciplinary approach facilitated by the Parkers, it has taught us to utilize resources previously untapped by the constraints of our individual subjective disciplines. While opening our realms of research to new ideas and methods, a more holistic approach allows for a wider breadth of knowledge. For example, an accompanying art installation was composed using the Abby Warburg's mnemosyne concepts of memory to show and to emphasize the multiple aspects of research used. The school also served as an open home to many children who were given opportunities that they would not have had otherwise. The Parker Academy was an educational institution that taught many children who came from different backgrounds, regardless of race or gender. Students at the Academy were all taught in the same rooms and all had the same opportunities. With the murmurings of women's rights, the girls educated at the Academy found a voice. The Academy's instructors taught them that they too have rights to be educated, to educate and to create a difference in society. With the fact that the Academy itself has almost been forgotten, so have the young women who attended the Academy, who so wanted to express themselves in broader American culture. Through the written records of the Parker family's archives their voices and ideas have been revitalized. Historical analysis of the Parker family archive and the students detailed in it show that even before the confirmed start date of women's suffrage that women were already beginning to realize that they too mattered. When young women graduated from The Parker Academy, they realized important position in society, and they went on to be influential parts of the abolitionist and the suffrage movements. Resveratrol 3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene is a polyphenol found naturally in plants which is linked to biochemical properties that may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions when consumed. Peanut sprouts Arachis hypogaea are one of many plants that naturally contain resveratrol, and this work studied the effects of fermented oak tree saw dust on germination of peanuts in order to increase germination and consequently increase resveratrol. Germination of peanut sprouts was quantified in two initial trials under optimal growth conditions. For germination, the most important conditions are temperature and moisture. The varying factor in the sprout germination was the fermentation time of the saw dust prior to planting the peanut seeds. Saw dust fermented for 0 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days were used in this study. In these initial trials, the results indicate that oak tree saw dust fermented for 45 days was most efficient in increased germination. In the future, more trials will be conducted, and resveratrol content will be analyzed as well as the microbiome content. The next phase of this study is to utilize chitinase water for reduced fungal growth interference to further increase germination of peanut sprouts for increased resveratrol. Cellular and Molecular Biology - Poster Presentations. Fruit flies D. The invasion of the Air Sac Primordia ASP , an organ analogous to the human lung, into the Wing Imaginal Disc WID of larval fruit flies is closely related to tumor metastasis in humans, as both processes use similar mechanisms to break down the basement membrane. By studying genes responsible for ASP invasion, researchers may be able to identify analogous genes in humans responsible for tumor metastasis. A genetic screen, using 65 protein trap lines, was conducted to find genes expressed in ASP and potentially involved in ASP invasion. The protein trap lines tagged endogenous proteins with a Green Fluorescent Protein GFP to indicate tissue localization of selected proteins under a fluorescent microscope. WID were isolated from 10 third instar larvae of each line and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. The gene responsible was Apontic apt. The screen is ongoing and we hope to be able to identify more genes expressed in the ASP. To better understand the role of Calcineurin-binding protein 1 Cabin1 in the developing nervous system, the zebrafish cerebellum was used as a model system during the different stages of maturity to asses cabin1 cell type-specific gene expression. Cabin1 is a gene that acts as a negative regulator to proteins that are known to control cerebellar granule cell production and survival. Therefore, cabin1 is expected to be expressed in granule cell precursors and mature granule cells. The cell types being tested for cabin1 expression were granule cells, Purkinje cells, eurydendroid cells, and their precursors. Single and double in situ hybridization were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression. Basement Membranes BM are important for normal development and tumor progression. In order to get a better understanding of BM dynamics we identified genes that encoded BM interacting proteins. One such gene is predicted to be involved in vesicle-mediated transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterize this gene by utilizing molecular biology techniques like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis utilizing antibodies generated in the laboratory. Anti-body staining indicates tissue and cell specific localization pattern for this protein. This pattern is similar to RNA in situ hybridization pattern observed in various tissues. Data related to this proteins' involvement in vesicle-mediated transport will be presented. Nonstructural protein 1 NS1 functions in the replication of positive-sense RNA genomes of flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, and is highly homologous among flaviviruses. Glycosylated NS1 can be found in the blood of infected individuals up to nearly two weeks after infection, therefore having the potential to be targeted for flavivirus diagnosis. One option for detection of NS1 in the bloodstream could entail taking advantage of the carbohydrate-binding properties of lectins. These proteins have been isolated from a variety of eukaryotes and prokaryotes and often bind to carbohydrate chains with high specificity. The objective of this project is to determine the binding of several recombinantly-produced lectins to various NS1 proteins and subsequently design biosensors for each NS1 using the optimal lectin as the recognition element and a fluorophore as the reporter element. The expression of these lectins will be tested and purified prior to determining the binding affinity and selectivity of each lectin and the specific carbohydrate moiety of NS1. If an optimal lectin-NS1 pair is found, a biosensor will designed as a rapid screening tool for flaviviruses. Many communities could benefit from the introduction of a more rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool with high specificity. The chemical tagging of a protein at or near its N- or C- terminus has remained a challenge when multiple reactive cysteines are present. The development of such a technique would be widely useful in a variety of applications. We added a cysteine residue within the N-terminal hexa-Histidine tag thereby providing a thiol -SH reactive site. However, the problem arises when the protein has other cysteine residues with similar affinity towards thiol-reactive reagents. The goal of this project then, is to explore potential ways to specifically modify a Cys-SH group located at the protein N-terminus without modifying other reactive Cys-SH groups. Interestingly, comparing the data from both assays with that of a wild-type variant reveals an unreactive native cysteine. Unfortunately, the cysteine embedded in the His-tag remained reactive, even when bounded to the Ni-NTA. The results from this study leaves much to ponder about the reactive properties of cysteine residues. The neuromuscular junctions of most vertebrates perform synaptic transmission with acetylcholine as the primary neurotransmitter which binds with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, resulting in muscular depolarization. Studies involving frog and rat neuromuscular junction preparations have shown that disruption of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as the post-synaptic cell results in expanded plasticity of the neuromuscular junction, leading to the appearance of functional non-cholinergic receptors. The present study hypothesizes the same receptor plasticity is seen in the developing neuromuscular junction of Danio rerio zebrafish. Embryos are allowed to develop to ages between 12 hours post fertilization hpf , before neurons have first made contact with the muscle and 6 or 7 days post fertilization dpf , when larva are free-swimming, and harvested at several time points in-between. When the embryo reaches the desired age, they are fixed and stained with receptor labeling antibodies or fluorescently labeled toxins to identify the different classes of receptors present at the neuromuscular junction. Despite the prevalence of isolated Mycobacteriophages, surprisingly few have had their structure characterized. MooMoo is a singleton cluster siphovirus with a prolate capsid that has an approximately 4: Prediction of the major capsid protein structure revealed possible similarities to the icosahedral capsid of HK Based on these findings, although MooMoo has a vastly different morphology, it may be similar to presently characterized phages. Further EM research is required in order to verify these predictions. Specific DNA recognition is of great importance for clinical and biomedical applications as well as public health. Emerging applications include detecting cancer biomarkers, pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes ARGs. In this study, a sandwich assay for detecting specific ARGs has been demonstrated by employing a pair of ZFPs which consists of capture and detection probes. The capture probe ZFP was conjugated on the silane polymer-coated surface through APDMES 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane cross-linking, creating an anticipated self-assembled monolayer with the capture probes conjugated homogeneously. Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. NUPL2 protein is a part of the nuclear pore complex that serves to selectively export substances from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, there was no discernible expression differences in NUPL2 protein between HER2-expressing cells and non-expressing cells confirmed via immunofluorescence imaging and Western blot analysis. Importantly, we did find significant instances where the localization of NUPL2 was affected by the expression of HER2, which we quantified in a large sampling of cells. This is significant because it suggests a mechanism as to how HER2 promotes excessive cancer growth and thus NUPL2 may warrant consideration as a possible target of gene therapy, especially for patients with recurring and poor prognosis cervical cancer. The process of individualization in spermatogenesis occurs after both meiosis and mitosis have occurred to produce a bundle of 64 spermatid cells surrounded by two somatic cyst cells. During individualization, acrosomes form, axonemes elongate, nuclear chromatin compacts, histones are replaced with protamine, and investment cones travel along the spermatids, removing cytoplasm, organelles, and the bridges connecting them. However, the signal Signal X from the somatic cyst to the spermatids to produce the Upd ligand is unknown. To determine how signal X is regulated, 12 genes that showed reduced expression from STAT knockdown were selected. Examining how the FGF signaling pathway effects gene and protein expression within the pharynx during embryonic development The pharynx is a region of the vertebrate embryo that gives rise to many important structures in the head and neck. Embryonic cells in the pharynx use proteins as signaling molecules for cell to cell communication. The absence or mutations of these signaling proteins can cause birth defects. I analyzed the role of the Fibroblast Growth Factor FGF genetic signaling pathway during the development of the pharynx. I inhibited the FGF pathway in developing Xenopus laevis embryos and used in-situ hybridization to detect changes in gene expression. I was diagnosed with placenta praevia where the placenta is lying very low, blocking the opening of the cervix and there was, unfortunately, very little chance of giving natural birth. I still prayed throughout the pregnancy that this might change. We waited until 40 weeks in the hopes that our little girl might still be able to push her way through, but no such luck for us. I started to extremely anxious and overly feel very nauseous and dizzy nervous. Although the doctor and I told the anaesthetist had explained everything to right away. But he had warned me step by step, I was still terrified. Having given birth me that this might happen and they added something to The Greatest Baby Expo to my daughter and my son the drip which made me feel is Coming to Town! The blue the hundreds of forms that screen went up and I started Complete your details below to needed to be filled out — my to feel a lot of tugging and redeem this voucher at the door husband was told to change pulling on my lower half. The Someone once described it as anaesthetist explained to me a feeling that my body was a Full Name: I was terrified of needles and I really struggled with that Pregnancy Due date: A nurse sensation. It to tell them to hurry up. After what felt like an Where do you live area? Almost immediately the eternity, at exactly 3. I was so was lifted out and she started grateful that this part was over. In fact mamamagic. It was such a relief. Normal ticket prices apply to visitors coming on Saturday and Sunday. The position of the much of the recovery room blue screen and the dizziness that they wheeled me into. I would feel better soon. She And it was so told me that my baby and overwhelming, beautiful and husband were waiting for me magical — and everything a in our room. They took her to the and the painkillers rocked. I was left alone while the It was nothing like the scary doctors put me back together. And All I could think of was even though it was not what getting through this to be with I had planned on, or what happy memories. Thanks to though, I was not in the room my baby. Even held her close. During this week blessing. Shortly after that I phoned my husband. We going to face the second time around in Groote Schuur Hospital, were both devastated, but my M the professors did their husband also had unwavering y son Jalon medication. This caused me to rounds twice a week. On one faith that everything would was born lose around 30kg. His when I found out that I was 12 birth defects, abnormalities and adjusting to the work birth weight was 3. In November , after a My body took a while moms have difficulties in Taking insulin four times a few months of having severe to adjust to the diabetic surviving. How, statistically, day at work was so difficult. There were times which was actually me contraceptive that I was are prevalent. I was given when I did not pack enough slipping into and out of a taking. I thought that the the option to abort, but had food for the day, then there diabetic coma , I was rushed irregular periods were due to to decide straight away. I was diagnosed the diabetes. There were also I burst into tears. I had mixed me tired and dizzy. I had with type one diabetes. The See table for the difference my first pregnancy , which is and sadness because I was nausea made everything more between type one and two. I could barely get an My dad passed away at the realise that I was expecting. I was shocked about apple in. I also struggled to young age of 42 after a long the extreme risks involved, concentrate. I had to go to the hospital I was shocked and in denial. My to sleep. I would sleep almost tummy was becoming more sitting up because I struggled uncomfortable. Eventually to breathe. My back gave me my boss and I reached an problems. By 32 weeks Chloe agreement that I would weighed 2. So not only was I the pregnancy I was told carrying big, but I had too that I would have to have a much amniotic fluid. I began caesarean section. This really to dread the weekly visits scared me, but the doctors because any small thing like advised me that natural birth glucose in urine meant that I was too risky. The c-section would have to be admitted. A macrosomic baby went through to the theatre simply means a big baby and Chloe was born weighing with a birth weight of over five kilograms. The caesar 4. Because the baby grows was painless and without too large in utero, it can complications. After her birth lead to birth complications Chloe was sent straight to the for the mother and health neonatal ICU and I was sent complications for baby. I was I felt like I could give devastated to be separated birth there and then. I was from my baby early on but she extremely tired, but battled needed medical attention. Not associated with being Associated with being overweight. No production of insulin. Have too little insulin or cannot use effectively, worsens with time. Patient eventually has no insulin production. Common occurrence of Fewer episodes of episodes of low blood sugar hypoglycaemia, depending level hypoglycaemia. Not preventable. Mostly preventable with a healthy lifestyle. On day three I was I eventually made it to the allowed to breastfeed and a nursery and was shocked to week after giving birth we see her in the NICU with so were finally sent home. After many wires attached to her. The doctors told me that However today we are both she had a dangerous blood doing really well and have sugar reading of 1. I cherish KNOW? High blood sugar trimester and your blood sugar should be pregnancy levels, so managing your levels before 13 weeks of pregnancy monitored regularly. You have to maintain ideal blood glucose get enough kilojoules and to avoid sugar Controlling your blood sugar becomes levels as explained by your doctor , eat highs and lows. A suitable, safe form of harder during pregnancy normally the correct balanced diet, exercise and exercise should also be discussed with during the second and third trimester take the correct medication. If at all possible, women with pre-existing is well controlled. Your doctor will advise Meeting with your doctor or nurse diabetes should self-monitor their blood if an early delivery is necessary. If you before falling pregnant is crucial to ensure glucose levels. This will have to be took insulin during your pregnancy, then that you have a healthy pregnancy. It is discussed with a healthcare practitioner, insulin might be given via injection or vital to have controlled diabetes even but should be in line with the pattern intravenously when labour begins. Insulin before falling pregnant, because you of testing and type of insulin that was requirements often drop quickly right after might only find out you are pregnant by used prior to the pregnancy. Your eyes giving birth. Pregnant moms with diabetes often have babies with considerably larger bodies than other babies. The extra sugar is converted to sugar which makes the baby fat. If the baby is too large for a vaginal birth, a c-section might be necessary. ON YOUR High blood sugar levels during your pregnancy — and specifically the 24 hours before the delivery — may cause your baby to have dangerously low blood sugar right after the birth. If this is the case, then baby will be monitored closely and given glucose intravenously. Insufficient calcium and magnesium levels may also occur, but can also be rectified with medication. Ntsiki Molefe Osman, medical advisor at Novo Nordisk; webmd. Log onto www. The number of magazines you can subscribe to annually at a reduced rate depends on your Vitality contact you. SMSes cost R1. The Discovery Vitality offer is only available to active Vitality members. Discounts available to visit www. Discovery Vitality Pty Ltd is an authorised financial services provider. Registration number: Terms and conditions apply. This special offer is valid until 30 November and applies to South African residents only. There is no discount on postage and VAT. Developed and endorsed their health and wellbeing — giving you The extensive range offers peace of mind when you moms and babies: This range is food including fruit, meals consultant Paediatrician, and desserts , cereals both Dermatologist and mix add milk and mix add Homeopath approved. Join our Facebook page, PurityPromise, for daily updates and competitions. Each SMS is charged at R1. Entries close 30 November If you would like to receive further communication from Your Pregnancy, please register on www. Winners will be published on www. Have you and your partner had a meaningful conversation about the parenting issues that could bond you more closely — or cause stress and resentment later on? You might is when one parent-to-be anticipates abstract way. They might hear you and you parent. If you are battling to communicate without conflict, now would be a good time to get some couples counselling, or at least a mediated discussion with a neutral third party, advises Jeanine. There will be three people involved now, not just two. Instead of buying bigger bras for pregnancy and nursing bras after baby, wear nursing bras while pregnant. Start use newborn nappies for a week or two being financially savvy no before he outgrows them. Get only the bare minimum of the essentials. Freeze plenty of homemade 2 Hold meals before D-day: The amniotic sac forms. Get familiar enough 17 be from paying cash for Ask for samples, with your paediatrician hospitals and doctors upfront. At the end of each 19 can. Schools all the way from 21 in cost between a private Save big by making your pre-school to high school room and room-share. This government assisted fund it can be far cheaper than a private Socks will do until they encourages parents to save for their hospital. Or go to a government hospital take those first steps. Consider cloth nappies — as much as 25 percent for each year of you can save R10 or saving maximum R per child. Buying one is ready. Trouble breastfeeding? Most government clinics will have a sister who knows a thing or two about breastfeeding, while maternity state hospitals usually have lactation consultants on staff. These visits can cost R or more a time at private well-baby clinics. Simply download and enjoy! He could measure about 1. Blood is flowing from one side of the heart to the other, bypassing the lungs. N othing is more frightening some mild cramping. In most cases the cause is when you are pregnant. Yet research has shown the entire lining of the uterus the chromosomal problems problems that one in five pregnant women will endometrium comes away as the body with the early development of the bleed during the first trimester. Implantation bleeding is usually cervix, as well as some drugs and but actually a pregnancy is only secure light and scanty and may last one or Rhesus incompatibility. Bleeding or spotting, if associated with lining of the uterus. Because implantation bleeding occurs cramping, fever or chills and pain that In order for a blastocyst the result at about the same time that your period comes and goes and is felt in the small of of the union of the sperm and the egg may start, many women think this is a the back radiating to the lower abdomen to survive and grow into an embryo, small, light period and are surprised to with loss of bloody tissue, is cause it needs to find a place in the wall of find out that they are indeed pregnant — for concern. Between five to and further along than they thought. If you suspect that you may be having seven days after ovulation the level Once the next period does not a miscarriage, or you are unsure why of the hormone progesterone is at its occur, and you know you are indeed you are bleeding, contact your doctor or highest, and this stimulates the growth pregnant, your doctor may have to use midwife immediately or go to be checked of the blood vessels that supply the other methods to date your pregnancy, at the hospital where you are planning to endometrium, which is the lining of the especially as you are likely to be unsure have your baby. It is always a good idea to check out any a pregnancy does not occur. This is then Also at this stage you have had no other bleeding at any stage of your pregnancy, recognised as your period. Your breasts have not if only for reassurance. YP When attachment of the blastocyst does started to enlarge and there are no outer take place in the lining of the womb, it is visible signs that you are pregnant. The phase, due to the changes in hormones. Another huge consideration for a blastocyst attaches itself by burrowing pregnant woman is ectopic pregnancy. This occurs when the pregnancy grows women will experience a bit of spotting Implantation bleeding has no ill effects in the fallopian tube instead of the that is known as implantation bleeding..

Down the cost, while still in the region of a do the test — such as being at an increased syndrome, for example, is characterised belt-tightening R7has come down risk of genetic disorder in your family, by the presence of one extra chromosome. NIPT is over 99 percent accurate testing of amniocentesis or CVS, and leaves womb or from your placental tissue, in picking up Down syndrome and it is more time for parents to decide whether respectively.

Because this is invasive, indeed most often used for this purpose. But does NIPT completely of amnio testing. So the risks to determine chromosomal ones.

Down syndrome. But should you worry? A bladder infection ca n be cleared up q uickly and easily with a ntibiotics. Needless to say, urination, feeling a constant musculature and delayed day — approximately 1. This leads to an liquids. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds advice includes good reason to seek videos Asian teen porn Town.

Although genetic factors that influence her size will only begin to take effect at about 20 weeks, your nutrition and general health are already playing a vital role.

Progress Baby is big enough and strong enough to wiggle, twist, kick and squirm but you are likely to only feel this from your fifth month. His ears are on the side of his head and can start hearing sounds.

Rather avoid it. This laboratory to see which culture may cause a fever, which is present and the antibiotic is may predispose a patient chosen according to the test to going into labour. If this results from the laboratory. One of the major changes is the shift Premature oral creampie in0 seconds your centre of gravity, which affects your posture T he enlarging belly seems to pull your body forward so that the spine assumes a greater curve than normal.

The lower back the lumber spine becomes more hollow, while the upper back becomes Premature oral creampie in0 seconds rounded. This causes the lower back muscles Premature oral creampie in0 seconds shorten and weaken and therefore places great strain on the entire back.

Instead of being short, thick and strong, they elongate and stretch by as much as 20cm to accommodate the expanding uterus. They also separate down the middle in the latter part of pregnancy and the back picks up the slack, taking on more strain.

Heavy growing breasts also play a part in causing upper back discomfort. If your pelvic floor is weak your internal organs are not well supported from the bottom and this causes heaviness on the lower back causing more aches and pains. Short, tight hamstrings bring about a change in the correct position of the pelvis and this impacts tremendously on the body.

We cannot forget to mention the role of pregnancy hormones. Now that you understand of Premature oral creampie in0 seconds body that will not only help you during pregnancy but also during labour and after the baby is born. Swimming is the reasons for the joint aches and strains, an excellent all-round exercise, which you need to become more aware of your strengthens your body and keeps you fit. When standing or walking, Try and exercise for 20 minutes three times imagine that you have a string attached a week.

Check with your doctor before to the top of your head that makes you embarking on an exercise regime. If the working surface is too arms. Do not bend down with straight low, transfer your weight to one leg and legs, always bend your knees into a squat after a while transfer it to the other leg. If When sitting, see that your spine is well you are picking anything up from the supported. Ensure that your buttocks are floor bring it close to your body, before against the back of the chair and that you lifting it.

Wear low-heeled shoes and sleep place a small cushion in the small of your with a small pillow or cushion between back. An upright chair with a high back your knees. As soon as you or supported by a small stool to reduce pressure in the veins of the legs. When preparing bra — it will supply support to the breasts a meal, sit while you peel onions, chop as they grow along with your pregnancy vegetables Premature oral creampie in0 seconds so on.

Keep a small pillow and as a result there will be less stress and or rolled up towel in the car to place in the strain on your upper Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. Progress This Premature oral creampie in0 seconds kicks off a real growth spurt for your baby.

His hands and fingers are clearly visible Premature oral creampie in0 seconds the nail beds have been laid down. Progress By 24 weeks the foetal lungs have started to make surfactant — the detergent-like molecule Premature oral creampie in0 seconds helps the lungs expand and take in air.

The nervous system is maturing and the baby startles when she hears a loud noise. The eyes open and close. She is swallowing amniotic fluid, and her heart is pumping 30l of blood through the system each day.

Weight She gains about g — approximately the same amount that she gained during the first half of your pregnancy. Remember always to tell your caregiver before you try any remedy: Specifically, progesterone relaxes smooth muscles throughout the body, which in turn leads to constipation.

So Premature oral creampie in0 seconds well now R www. If you Before trying any natural remedy, discuss ate little fibre before Premature oral creampie in0 seconds pregnancy, with your doctor. Legumes are an in the morning.

However, not all of them are or vegan moms-to-be. A good option is mince mixture with lentils for a legume will find that your constipation does not psyllium husk-based fibre supplements, boost. If you find it during Premature oral creampie in0 seconds. However, depending on the WATER is essential for optimum amount of fibre you already have in your digestion.

Light exercise and increase gradually depending on which helps to improve digestion can help to improve digestion, as well your tolerance.

Once again this comes down digestive this web page. Just be sure to Try some deep breathing to help to de- to individual tolerance and you need to not overdo it and keep to three at a time stress and make you feel more relaxed.

Therefore it is best to the gut, which play a role in digestion. By keep to small regular meals and snacks supplementing with probiotics, it can help throughout the day. Premature oral creampie in0 seconds are varicose veins around the anus that start off like little peas and can swell to feel like grapes when they protrude.

Speak to your doctor about learn more here Premature oral creampie in0 seconds that can be used to shrink haemorrhoids. Progress A baby born at Felt a shooting pain in the bum or legs? It could be sciatica this stage would still need P help with breathing, but the r e g n a n c y result of an irritable sciatic anything from a mild ache, lungs have matured to an brings with it nerve.

Sciatic nerve pain is to a sharp, burning feeling, extent that survival outside many physical not a condition in itself, but a or excruciating discomfort the womb is possible. Your discomforts. Often it is noises. Sitting for long more fat. Many women Premature oral creampie in0 seconds that Sciatica refers to back pain periods of time and coughing some sort of back pain is caused by a problem with or sneezing may bring on an baby, as you shed your excess inevitable and unavoidable, the sciatic nerve.

When there attack of sciatica. YP posture and body mechanics in the lower back that extends result of the uterus putting at a time when your ligaments further and includes the hip, pressure on the vena cava If you are lax and the fact that you buttocks, and leg. The pain of blood vessel causing venous find the pain are gaining more weight sciatica is usually felt from the congestion in the pelvis and intolerable, di scuss over a shorter period of time lower back, to the area behind lumbar spine, which could your pain relie f options than normal.

He may Lower back pain LBP down below the knee. Because it is not easy prescribe med ication that is can occur as a result of many It makes sense then that to move your baby off safe for you an d your baby.

Make sure that you sleep Premature oral creampie in0 seconds floor exercises always knees, or with all your weight Fast relief can be found by Premature oral creampie in0 seconds a firm, well supporting help by increasing circulation on one leg.

Pay attention to good body from the sensitive spot causing Use pillows to elevate your Pregnancy massage, yoga, mechanics and good posture. Weight Your baby Reaching the eight-month milestone is on average 1. U p Premature oral creampie in0 seconds this point your SKIN baby has grown from The lanugo fine hair covering the body months years in fact to develop fully.

Your baby functional human being. This can also probably tell light from dark. Your And even though we now know that the shed lanugo is swallowed by baby and abdominal muscles are quite stretched and most important developmental steps — accumulates in his bowel.

There is not much to see in the womb, and the rumblings of your internal organs, but The last few weeks are dedicated to in fact the smallest muscles in the body are also voices and music from the outside. However the found in the eyes, so the eyes take many Prenatal stimulation experts recommend rate of growth will taper off as you reach your physical limits.

Since each person development. The old story of dark Final maturing and completion of the eyes being dominant over blue eyes has been disputed, and eye major body systems are taking place now.

Melanin is a pigment that old lady but takes on a more pinkish and is found in the skin and also the eyes. More melanin means go here eyes and less melanin smooth appearance as more fat is laid means lighter eyes.

Blue eyed parents will most likely have blue eyed outside of the womb. If you look at children of blue eyed parents, they probably all have blue eyes, nervous system has reached a stage of but of different hues melanin distribution, light Premature oral creampie in0 seconds, as well as a number of colour development where it can direct breathing genes. This means your baby can hear you — so talk and sing to baby.

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The rights offering will be made only by means of a prospectus meeting the requirements of the Securities Act ofas amended.

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